RAND(3)                                                   RAND(3)

     NAME
          rand, lrand, frand, nrand, lnrand, srand, truerand,
          ntruerand, fastrand, nfastrand - random number generator

     SYNOPSIS
          #include <u.h>
          #include <libc.h>

          int    rand(void)

          long   lrand(void)

          double frand(void)

          int    nrand(int val)

          long   lnrand(long val)

          void   srand(long seed)

          ulong  truerand(void)

          ulong  ntruerand(ulong val)

          #include <mp.h>
          #include <libsec.h>

          void   genrandom(uchar *buf, int nbytes)

          void   prng(uchar *buf, int nbytes)

          ulong  fastrand(void)

          ulong  nfastrand(ulong val)

     DESCRIPTION
          Rand returns a uniform pseudo-random number x, 0≤x<215.

          Lrand returns a uniform long x, 0≤x<231.

          Frand returns a uniform double x, 0.0≤x<1.0, This function
          calls lrand twice to generate a number with as many as 62
          significant bits of mantissa.

          Nrand returns a uniform integer x, 0≤x<val.  Lnrand is the
          same, but returns a long.

          The algorithm is additive feedback with:

               x[n] = (x[n-273] + x[n-607]) mod 2^31

     RAND(3)                                                   RAND(3)

          giving a period of 2^30 × (2^607 - 1).

          The generators are initialized by calling srand with what-
          ever you like as argument.  To get a different starting
          value each time,

               srand(time(0))

          will work as long as it is not called more often than once
          per second.  Calling

               srand(1)

          will initialize the generators to their starting state.

          Truerand returns a random unsigned long read from
          /dev/random.  Due to the nature of /dev/random, truerand can
          only return a few hundred bits a second.

          Ntruerand returns a uniform random integer x, 0≤x<val≤232-1.

          Genrandom fills a buffer with bytes from the X9.17 pseudo-
          random number generator.  The X9.17 generator is seeded by
          24 truly random bytes read from /dev/random.

          Prng uses the native rand(3) pseudo-random number generator
          to fill the buffer.  Used with srand, this function can pro-
          duce a reproducible stream of pseudo random numbers useful
          in testing.

          Both genrandom and prng may be passed to mprand (see mp(3)).

          Fastrand uses genrandom to return a uniform unsigned long x,
          0≤x<232-1.

          Nfastrand uses genrandom to return a uniform unsigned long
          x, 0≤x<val≤232-1.

     SOURCE
          /src/lib9
          /src/libsec/port

     SEE ALSO
          mp(3)

     BUGS
          Truerand and ntruerand maintain a static file descriptor.

          To avoid name conflicts with the underlying system, rand,
          lrand, frand, nrand, lnrand, and srand are preprocessor mac-
          ros defined as p9rand, p9lrand, and so on; see intro(3).

     RAND(3)                                                   RAND(3)

          Some versions of SunOS do not ship with /dev/random
          installed.  You may have to download a to add it to your
          system.