FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

     NAME
          fs, exsort - file server maintenance

     SYNOPSIS
          help [ command ... ]
          arp subcommand
          cfs filesystem
          check [options]
          clri [file...]
          cpu [proc]
          create path uid gid perm [lad]
          cwcmd subcommand
          cycl subcommand
          date [[+-] seconds]
          duallow [uid]
          dump
          files
          flag flag [ channel ]
          halt
          newuser name [options]
          noattach
          passwd
          profile [01]
          remove [files...]
          route subcommand
          stat[acdejklw]
          stats [[-] flags...]
          sync
          time command
          trace [number]
          users [file]
          vcache
          version
          who [user...]
          wormcp [ funit tunit [nblock]]
          wormeject [ tunit ]
          wormingest [ tunit ]
          wormoffline [ tunit ]
          wormonline [ tunit ]

          disk/exsort [-w] [file]

     DESCRIPTION
          Except for exsort, these commands are available only on the
          console of an fs(4) file server.

          The console requires the machine's password to be supplied
          before accepting commands.  Typing a control-D will cause
          the server to request the password again.

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          Help prints a `usage string' for the named commands, by
          default all commands.  Also, many commands print menus of
          their options if given incorrect or incomplete parameters.

          Arp has two subcommands: print prints the contents of the
          ARP cache and flush flushes it.

          Cfs changes the current file system, that is, the file tree
          to which commands (check, clri, create, newuser, profile,
          remove, and users) apply.  The initial filesystem is main.

          Check verifies the consistency of the current file system.
          With no options it checks and reports the status.  It sus-
          pends service while running.  Options are:

          rdall  Read every block in the file system (can take a long
                 time).  Normally, check will stop short of the actual
                 contents of a file and just verify the block
                 addresses.

          tag    Fix bad tags; each block has a tag that acts as a
                 backwards pointer for consistency checking.

          ream   Fix bad tags and also clear the contents of blocks
                 that have bad tags.

          pfile  Print every file name.

          pdir   Print every directory name.

          free   Rebuild the list of free blocks with all blocks that
                 are not referenced.  This option is only useful on
                 non-cache/WORM file systems.

          bad    Each block address that is out of range or duplicate
                 is cleared.  Note that only the second and subsequent
                 use of a block is cleared.  Often the problems in a
                 file system are caused by one bad file that has a lot
                 of garbage block addresses.  In such a case, it is
                 wiser to use check to find the bad file (by number of
                 diagnostic messages) and then use clri to clear the
                 addresses in that file.  After that, check can be
                 used to reclaim the free list.

          touch  Cause every directory and indirect block not on the
                 current WORM disk to be advanced to the current WORM
                 on the next dump.  This is a discredited idea to try
                 to keep operating on the knee of the cache working
                 set.  Buy more cache disk.

          Clri clears the internal directory entry and abandons

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          storage associated with files. It ignores the usual rules
          for sanity, such as checking against removing a non-empty
          directory.  A subsequent check free will place the abandoned
          storage in the free list.

          Cpu prints the CPU utilization and state of the processes in
          the file server.  If the name of a process type argument is
          given, then CPU utilization for only those processes is
          printed.

          Create creates a file on the current file system.  Uid and
          gid are names or numbers from /adm/users.  Perm is the low 9
          bits of the permission mode of the file, in octal.  An
          optional final l, a, or d creates a locked file, append-only
          file, or directory.

          Cwcmd controls the cached WORM file systems.  The subcom-
          mands are:

          mvstate state1 state2 [platter]
               States are none, dirty, dump, dump1, error, read, and
               write.  A mvstate dump1 dump will cause I/O errors in
               the last dump to be retried.  A mvstate dump1 write
               will cause I/O errors in the last dump to be retried in
               reallocated slots in the next dump.  A mvstate read
               none will flush the cache associated with the WORM.  A
               mvstate dump write aborts the background process dump-
               ing to WORM; as a consequence it leaves holes in the
               dump file system.  Other uses are possible but arcane.
               The optional platter limits affected blocks to those on
               that platter.

          prchain [start] [back]
               Print the chain of superblocks for the directory con-
               taining the roots of the dumped file systems, starting
               at block number start (default 0) going forward (back-
               wards if back is supplied).

          savecache [percent]
               Copy the block numbers, in native endian longwords, of
               blocks in the read state to the file /adm/cache for use
               by disk/exsort.  If an argument is given, then that
               percent (most recently used) of each cache bucket is
               copied.

          loadcache [dskno]
               Read /adm/cache and for every block there on WORM disk
               dskno, read the block from WORM to the cache.  If dskno
               is not supplied, all blocks in /adm/cache are read.

          startdump [01]
               Suspend (0) or restart (1) the background dump process.

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          touchsb
               Verify that the superblock on the WORM is readable,
               ignoring the cached copy.

          acct Prints how many times each user has caused the system
               to allocate new space on the WORM; the units are mega-
               bytes.

          clearacct
               Clears the accounting records for acct.

          Cycl controls the Cyclone fiber link to the main CPU server.
          The one subcommand is reboot, which reinitializes the
          Cyclone board and connection.

          Date prints the current date.  It may be adjusted using
          +-seconds.  With no sign, it sets the date to the absolute
          number of seconds since 00:00 Jan 1, 1970 GMT; with a sign
          it trims the current time.

          Duallow sets permissions such that the named user can read
          and search any directories.  This is the permission neces-
          sary to do a du(1) command anywhere in the file system to
          discover disk usage.

          Dump starts a dump to WORM immediately for all file systems
          that have a WORM associated.  File service is suspended
          while the cache is scanned; service resumes when the copy to
          WORM starts.

          Files prints for every connection the number of allocated
          fids.

          Flag toggles flags, initially all off:

          arp       Report ARP activity.
          attach    Report as connections are made to the file server.
          chat      (Very noisy.)  Print all 9P messages to and from
                    the server.
          dkit      Report Datakit activity.
          route     Report received RIP packets.
          ro        Report I/O on the WORM device.

          If given a second numeric channel argument, as reported by
          who, the flag is altered only on that connection.

          Halt does a sync and halts the machine, returning to the
          boot ROM.

          Newuser requires a name argument.  With no options it adds
          user name, with group leader name, to /adm/users and makes
          the directory /usr/name owned by user and group name. The

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          options are

          ?          Print the entry for name.
          :          Add a group: add the name to /adm/users but don't
                     create the directory.  By convention, groups are
                     numbered starting from 10000, users from 0.
          newname    Rename existing user name to newname.
          =leader    Change the leader of name to leader. If leader is
                     missing, remove the existing leader.
          +member    Add member to the member list of name.
          -member    Remove existing member from the member list of
                     name.

          After a successful newuser command the file server over-
          writes /adm/users to reflect the internal state of the user
          table.

          Noattach disables attach(5) messages, in particular for sys-
          tem maintenance.  Previously attached connections are unaf-
          fected.  Another noattach will enable normal behavior.

          Passwd sets the machine's password and writes it in non-
          volatile RAM.

          Profile 0 clears the profiling buffer and enables profiling;
          profile 1 stops profiling and writes the data to
          /adm/kprofdata for use by kprof (see prof(1)). If a number
          is not specified, the profiling state toggles.

          Remove removes files.

          Route maintains an IP routing table.  The subcommands are:

          add dest gate [mask]
                              Add a static route from IP address dest
                              using gateway gate with an optional sub-
                              net mask.
          delete dest         Delete an entry from the routing table.
          print               Display the contents of the routing
                              table.
          ripon               Enables the table to be filled from RIP
                              packets.
          ripoff              Disables the table from being updated by
                              RIP packets.

          The stat commands are connected with a service or device
          identified by the last character of the name: c, Cyclone
          fiber link; d, SCSI targets; e, Eagle Ethernet controller;
          j, Jaguar SCSI/VME disk controller; k, Datakit; l, LANCE
          Ethernet controller; w, cached WORM.  The Statp command
          prints statistics about processes; an optional argument
          identifies the process to be displayed; stata prints overall

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          statistics about the file system.  The stats command takes
          an optional argument identifying the characters of stat com-
          mands to run.  The option is remembered and becomes the
          default for subsequent stats commands if it begins with a
          minus sign.

          Sync writes dirty blocks in memory to the magnetic disk
          cache.

          Time reports the time required to execute the command.

          Trace with no options prints the set of queue-locks held by
          each process in the file server.  If things are quiescent,
          there should be no output.  With an argument number it
          prints a stack traceback of that process.

          Users uses the contents of file (default /adm/users) to ini-
          tialize the file server's internal representation of the
          users structure.  Incorrectly formatted entries in file will
          be ignored.  If file is explicitly default, the system
          builds a minimal functional users table internally; this can
          help recover from disasters.  If the file cannot be read,
          you must run

               users default

          for the system to function.  The default table looks like
          this:

               -1:adm:adm:
               0:none:adm:
               1:tor:tor:
               10000:sys::
               10001:map:map:
               10002:doc::
               10003:upas:upas:
               10004:font::
               10005:bootes:bootes:

          Vcache displays statistics about the virtual buffer cache on
          machines with mapped caches such as the Sparcstation 2.

          Version reports when the file server was last compiled and
          last rebooted.

          Who reports, one per line, the names of users connected to
          the file server and the status of their connections.  The
          first number printed on each line is the channel number of
          the connection.  If users are given the output selects con-
          nections owned by those users.

          Wormcp copies from WORM disk funit to WORM disk tunit nblock

     FS(8)                                                       FS(8)

          native blocks (default the whole disk).  If tunit is writ-
          ten, wormcp guarantees the written data is equal to the data
          on funit and stops if not.  Wormcp does a binary search to
          find the lowest unwritten block on tunit at which to start
          the copy.  With no arguments, wormcp stops a running copy.

          Wormeject moves the WORM disk in slot tunit to the output
          shelf.

          Wormingest moves the WORM disk from the input shelf to slot
          tunit.

          Wormoffline will take the designated WORM controller out of
          service.  This is done in software by ignoring that logical
          unit when changing platters.  Note that the controller will
          be restored on a reboot.

          Wormonline will restore the designated unit to service.

          When the file server boots, it prints the message

               for config mode hit a key within 5 seconds

          If a character is typed within 5 seconds of the message
          appearing, the server will enter config mode.  See
          fsconfig(8) for the commands available in config mode.  The
          system also enters config mode if, at boot time, the non-
          volatile RAM does not appear to contain a valid configura-
          tion.

          Exsort is a regular command to be run on a CPU server, not
          on the file server console.  It reads the named file
          (default /adm/cache) and sorts the cache disk block numbers
          contained therein.  It assumes the numbers are 4-byte inte-
          gers and guesses the endianness by looking at the data.  It
          then prints statistics about the cache.  With option -w it
          writes the sorted data back to file.

     SOURCE
          /sys/src/fs
          /sys/src/cmd/disk/exsort.c

     SEE ALSO
          fs(4)
          Ken Thompson, ``The Plan 9 File Server''.