man(1) Manual page archive

     LS(1)                                                       LS(1)

          ls  -  list contents of directory

          ls [ -ltasdrucifg ] name ...

          For each directory argument, ls lists the contents of the
          directory; for each file argument, ls repeats its name and
          any other information requested.  The output is sorted
          alphabetically by default.  When no argument is given, the
          current directory is listed.  When several arguments are
          given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but
          file arguments appear before directories and their contents.
          There are several options:

          -l   List in long format, giving mode, number of links,
               owner, size in bytes, and time of last modification for
               each file.  (See below.)  If the file is a special file
               the size field will instead contain the major and minor
               device numbers.

          -t   Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by
               name, as is normal.

          -a   List all entries; usually `.'  and `..'  are sup-

          -s   Give size in blocks, including indirect blocks, for
               each entry.

          -d   If argument is a directory, list only its name, not its
               contents (mostly used with -l to get status on direc-

          -r   Reverse the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic or
               oldest first as appropriate.

          -u   Use time of last access instead of last modification
               for sorting (-t) or printing (-l).

          -c   Use time of last modification to inode (mode, etc.)
               instead of last modification to file for sorting (-t)
               or printing (-l).

          -i   Print i-number in first column of the report for each
               file listed.

          -f   Force each argument to be interpreted as a directory
               and list the name found in each slot.  This option

     LS(1)                                                       LS(1)

               turns off -l, -t, -s, and -r, and turns on -a; the
               order is the order in which entries appear in the

          -g   Give group ID instead of owner ID in long listing.

          The mode printed under the -l option contains 11 characters
          which are interpreted as follows: the first character is

          d  if the entry is a directory;
          b  if the entry is a block-type special file;
          c  if the entry is a character-type special file;
          -  if the entry is a plain file.

          The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three
          bits each.  The first set refers to owner permissions; the
          next to permissions to others in the same user-group; and
          the last to all others.  Within each set the three charac-
          ters indicate permission respectively to read, to write, or
          to execute the file as a program.  For a directory, `exe-
          cute' permission is interpreted to mean permission to search
          the directory for a specified file.  The permissions are
          indicated as follows:

          r  if the file is readable;
          w  if the file is writable;
          x  if the file is executable;
          -  if the indicated permission is not granted.

          The group-execute permission character is given as s if the
          file has set-group-ID mode; likewise the user-execute per-
          mission character is given as s if the file has set-user-ID

          The last character of the mode (normally `x' or `-') is t if
          the 1000 bit of the mode is on.  See chmod(1) for the mean-
          ing of this mode.

          When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a
          total count of blocks, including indirect blocks is printed.

          /etc/passwd to get user ID's for `ls -l'.
          /etc/group to get group ID's for `ls -g'.