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     roff  -  format text

     roff [ +n ] [ -n ] [ -s ] [ -h ] file ...

     Roff formats text according to control lines embedded in the
     text in the given files.  Encountering a nonexistent file
     terminates printing.  Incoming interconsole messages are
     turned off during printing.  The optional flag arguments

     +n   Start printing at the first page with number n.

     -n   Stop printing at the first page numbered higher than n.

     -s   Stop before each page (including the first) to allow
          paper manipulation; resume on receipt of an interrupt

     -h   Insert tabs in the output stream to replace spaces
          whenever appropriate.

     Input consists of intermixed text lines, which contain
     information to be formatted, and request lines, which con-
     tain instructions about how to format it.  Request lines
     begin with a distinguished control character, normally a

     Output lines may be filled as nearly as possible with words
     without regard to input lineation.  Line breaks may be
     caused at specified places by certain commands, or by the
     appearance of an empty input line or an input line beginning
     with a space.

     The capabilities of roff are specified in the attached
     Request Summary.  Numerical values are denoted there by n or
     +n, titles by t, and single characters by c.  Numbers
     denoted +n may be signed + or -, in which case they signify
     relative changes to a quantity, otherwise they signify an
     absolute resetting.  Missing n fields are ordinarily taken
     to be 1, missing t fields to be empty, and c fields to shut
     off the appropriate special interpretation.

     Running titles usually appear at top and bottom of every
     page.  They are set by requests like

               .he 'part1'part2'part3'

     Part1 is left justified, part2 is centered, and part3 is
     right justified on the page.  Any % sign in a title is
     replaced by the current page number.  Any nonblank may serve


     as a quote.

     ASCII tab characters are replaced in the input by a replace-
     ment character, normally a space, according to the column
     settings given by a .ta command.  (See .tr for how to con-
     vert this character on output.)

     Automatic hyphenation of filled output is done under control
     of .hy.  When a word contains a designated hyphenation char-
     acter, that character disappears from the output and hyphens
     can be introduced into the word at the marked places only.

     /usr/lib/suftab suffix hyphenation tables
     /tmp/rtm?       temporary

     nroff (I), troff (I)

     Roff is the simplest of the runoff programs, but is utterly


                         REQUEST SUMMARY

Request  Break   Initial Meaning
the current line is stopped.


.ti 0 .li .ce n    yes     -       Center the next n input lines,
                        without     filling.      .ti    0    .li
                        .de xx   no      -       Define   parame-
                        terless  macro  to  be invoked by request
                        `.xx' (definition ends on line  beginning
                        `..').          .ti         0         .li
                        .ds      yes     no      Double    space;
                        same    as    `.ls   2'.    .ti   0   .li
                        .ef t    no      t=''''  Even foot  title
                        becomes      t.       .ti      0      .li
                        .eh t    no      t=''''  Even head  title
                        becomes      t.       .ti      0      .li
                        .fi      yes     yes     Begin    filling
                        output      lines.      .ti     0     .li
                        .fo      no      t=''''  All foot  titles
                        are       t.        .ti       0       .li
                        .hc c    no      none    Hyphenation
                        character   becomes   `c'.    .ti  0  .li
                        .he t    no      t=''''  All head  titles
                        are  t.   .ti  0  .li  .hx      no      -
                               Title lines are suppressed.  .ti 0
                        .li  .hy n    no      n=1     Hyphenation
                        is done, if n=1; and is not done, if n=0.
                        .ti 0 .li .ig      no      -       Ignore
                        input lines through a line beginning with
                        `..'.    .ti   0  .li  .in +n   yes     -
                               Indent n spaces from left  margin.
                        .ti  0  .li .ix +n   no      -       Same
                        as `.in' but without break.   .ti  0  .li
                        .li n    no      -       Literal,   treat
                        next  n  lines  as  text.   .ti   0   .li
                        .ll +n   no      n=65    Line      length
                        including indent is n characters.  .ti  0
                        .li .ls +n   yes     n=1     Line spacing
                        set to n lines per output  line.   .ti  0
                        .li  .m1 n    no      n=2     Put n blank
                        lines between the top of  page  and  head
                        title.          .ti         0         .li
                        .m2 n    no      n=2     n  blank   lines
                        put  between  head title and beginning of
                        text    on    page.     .ti     0     .li
                        .m3 n    no      n=1     n   blank  lines
                        put between end of text and  foot  title.
                        .ti   0   .li  .m4 n    no      n=3     n
                        blank lines put between  the  foot  title
                        and  the  bottom  of  page.   .ti  0  .li
                        .na      yes     no      Stop   adjusting
                        the    right    margin.     .ti   0   .li
                        .ne n    no      -       Begin new  page,
                        if  n  output lines cannot fit on present
                        page.   .ti  0   .li   .nn +n   no      -
                               The  next  n  output lines are not
                        numbered.         .ti        0        .li
                        .n1      no      no      Add  5  to  page

                        offset; .ev1 .tl  - % - .ev .ev1 .ift .}C
                        .ev number lines in margin from 1 on each
                        page.          .ti         0          .li
                        .n2 n    no      no      Add  5  to  page
                        offset; number lines from n; stop if n=0.
                        .ti  0  .li .ni +n   no      n=0     Line
                        numbers  are  indented  n.   .ti  0   .li
                        .nf      yes     no      Stop     filling
                        output     lines.      .ti     0      .li
                        .nx filename     -       Change  to input
                        file    `filename'.     .ti     0     .li
                        .of t    no      t=''''  Odd  foot  title
                        becomes      t.       .ti      0      .li
                        .oh t    no      t=''''  Odd  head  title
                        becomes      t.       .ti      0      .li
                        .pa +n   yes     n=1     Same  as  `.bp'.
                        .ti 0 .li  .pl +n   no      n=66    Total
                        paper  length taken to be n lines.  .ti 0
                        .li .po +n   no      n=0     Page offset.
                        All  lines are preceded by n spaces.  .ti
                        0 .li .ro      no      arabic  Roman page
                        numbers.   .ti  0  .li .sk n    no      -
                               Produce  n  blank  pages  starting
                        next  page.  .ti 0 .li .sp n    yes     -
                               Insert block  of  n  blank  lines,
                        except   at  top  of  page.   .ti  0  .li
                        .ss      yes     yes     Single     space
                        output lines, equivalent to `.ls 1'.  .ti
                        0     .li      .ta n n..                -
                               Pseudotab  settings.   Initial tab
                        settings are columns 9 17 25 ...   .ti  0
                        .li .tc c    no      space   Tab replace-
                        ment character becomes `c'.   .ti  0  .li
                        .ti +n   yes     -       Temporarily
                        indent next output line n  spaces.   .ti0
                        .li            .tr cdef..       no      -
                               Translate c into d, e into f, etc.
                        .ti0        .li        .ul n    no      -
                               Underline the letters and  numbers
                        in the next n input lines.

                        .ev1 .tl  - % - .ev .ev1 .ift .}C .ev