man(1) Manual page archive

     ld  -  link editor

     ld [ -sulxrdni ] name ...

     Ld combines several object programs into one; resolves
     external references; and searches libraries.  In the sim-
     plest case the names of several object programs are given,
     and ld combines them, producing an object module which can
     be either executed or become the input for a further ld run.
     (In the latter case, the -r option must be given to preserve
     the relocation bits.)  The output of ld is left on a.out.
     This file is made executable only if no errors occurred dur-
     ing the load.

     The argument routines are concatenated in the order speci-
     fied.  The entry point of the output is the beginning of the
     first routine.

     If any argument is a library, it is searched exactly once at
     the point it is encountered in the argument list.  Only
     those routines defining an unresolved external reference are
     loaded.  If a routine from a library references another rou-
     tine in the library, the referenced routine must appear
     after the referencing routine in the library.  Thus the
     order of programs within libraries is important.

     Ld understands several flag arguments which are written pre-
     ceded by a `-'.  Except for -l, they should appear before
     the file names.

     -s  `squash' the output, that is, remove the symbol table
         and relocation bits to save space (but impair the use-
         fulness of the debugger).  This information can also be
         removed by strip.

     -u  take the following argument as a symbol and enter it as
         undefined in the symbol table.  This is useful for load-
         ing wholly from a library, since initially the symbol
         table is empty and an unresolved reference is needed to
         force the loading of the first routine.

     -l  This option is an abbreviation for a library name.  -l
         alone stands for `/lib/liba.a', which is the standard
         system library for assembly language programs.  -lx
         stands for `/lib/libx.a' where x is any character.  A
         library is searched when its name is encountered, so the
         placement of a -l is significant.

     -x  do not preserve local (non-.globl) symbols in the output
         symbol table; only enter external symbols.  This option


         saves some space in the output file.

     -X  Save local symbols except for those whose names begin
         with `L'.  This option is used by cc to discard inter-
         nally generated labels while retaining symbols local to

     -r  generate relocation bits in the output file so that it
         can be the subject of another ld run.  This flag also
         prevents final definitions from being given to common
         symbols, and suppresses the `undefined symbol' diagnos-

     -d  force definition of common storage even if the -r flag
         is present.

     -n  Arrange that when the output file is executed, the text
         portion will be read-only and shared among all users
         executing the file.  This involves moving the data areas
         up the the first possible 4K word boundary following the
         end of the text.

     -i  When the output file is executed, the program text and
         data areas will live in separate address spaces.  The
         only difference between this option and -n is that here
         the data starts at location 0.

     /lib/lib?.a   libraries
     a.out   output file

     as (I), ar (I)