ICHECK(8)                                               ICHECK(8)

          icheck, dcheck, ncheck - file system consistency check

          /etc/icheck [ -B ] [ -s ] [ -b numbers ] [ filesystem ]

          /etc/dcheck [ -B ] [ -i numbers ] [ filesystem ]

          /etc/ncheck [ -B ] [ -i numbers ] [ -a ] [ -s ] [ filesystem

          These programs perform consistency checks on file systems.
          For normal file system maintenance, see fsck(8).

          Icheck examines a file system, builds a bit map of used
          blocks, and compares this bit map against the free list
          maintained on the file system.  If the file system is not
          specified, a set of default file systems is checked.  The
          normal output of icheck includes a report of

               The total number of files and the numbers of regular,
               directory, block special and character special files.

               The total number of blocks in use and the numbers of
               single-, double-, and triple-indirect blocks and direc-
               tory blocks.

               The number of free blocks.

               The number of blocks missing; i.e. not in any file nor
               in the free list.

          The -s option causes icheck to ignore the actual free list
          and reconstruct a new one by rewriting the super-block of
          the file system.  The file system should be dismounted while
          this is done; if this is not possible (for example if the
          root file system has to be salvaged) care should be taken
          that the system is quiescent.  The words in the super-block
          which indicate the size of the free list and of the i-list
          are believed.  If the super-block has been curdled these
          words will have to be patched.  The -s option causes the
          normal output reports to be suppressed.

          Following the -b option is a list of block numbers; whenever
          any of the named blocks turns up in a file or the free list,
          a diagnostic is produced.

          Dcheck reads the directories in a file system and compares
          the link-count in each i-node with the number of directory

     ICHECK(8)                                               ICHECK(8)

          entries by which it is referenced.  The -i flag is followed
          by a list of i-numbers; when one of those i-numbers turns up
          in a directory, the number, the i-number of the directory,
          and the name of the entry are reported.

          Ncheck generates a pathname vs. i-number list of all files
          in a file system.  Names of directory files are followed by
          `/.'.  The -i option reduces the report to only those files
          whose i-numbers follow.  The -a option allows printing of
          the names `.'  and `..', which are ordinarily suppressed.
          The -s option reduces the report to special files and files
          with set-user-ID mode; it is intended to discover concealed
          violations of security policy.  The report is in no useful
          order, and probably should be sorted.

          These programs are faster if the raw version of the special
          file is used, since they read the i-list many blocks at a

          If filesystem is a special file, the minor device number is
          checked to distinguish between regular and bitmapped file
          systems.  If the filesystem resides in a regular file, it is
          assumed to be a regular file system unless the -B option is

          Default file systems vary with installation.

          fsck(8), filsys(5), clri(8)

          For duplicate blocks and bad blocks (which lie outside the
          file system) icheck announces the difficulty, the i-number,
          and the kind of block involved.  If a read error is encoun-
          tered, the block number of the bad block is printed and
          icheck considers it to contain 0.  `Bad freeblock' means
          that a block number outside the available space was encoun-
          tered in the free list.  `n dups in free' means that n
          blocks were found in the free list which duplicate blocks
          either in some file or in the earlier part of the free list.

          When a file turns up for which the link-count and the number
          of directory entries disagree, dcheck reports the relevant
          facts.  Allocated files which have 0 link-count and no
          entries are also listed.  The only dangerous situation
          occurs when there are more entries than links; if entries
          are removed, so the link-count drops to 0, the remaining
          entries point to thin air.  They should be removed.  When
          there are more links than entries, or there is an allocated
          file with neither links nor entries, some disk space may be
          lost but the situation will not degenerate.

     ICHECK(8)                                               ICHECK(8)

          When the filesystem structure is improper, ncheck prints
          `??' to denote the `parent' of a parentless file.  A path-
          name beginning with `...' denotes a loop.

          Since these commands are inherently two-pass in nature,
          extraneous diagnostics may be produced if applied to active
          file systems.

          They believe even preposterous super-blocks and consequently
          can get core images.