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     RA(4)                                                       RA(4)

          ra - DEC MSCP disks (RA60, RA80, RA81)

          Ra* refer to disk drives conforming to DEC's Mass Storage
          Control Protocol standard: drives such as the RA81 connected
          via controllers such as the UDA50.  Files with minor device
          numbers 0 through 7 refer to various portions of drive 0,
          minor devices 8 through 16 refer to drive 1, and so on up to
          63.  These files have a blocksize of 1K bytes; if 64 is
          added to the minor device number, the resulting file has 4K
          byte blocks, and if used as a filesystem, a slightly differ-
          ent structure.

          The range and size of the pseudo-drives for each drive are
          as follows.  Sizes are measured in hardware sectors (512

               disk      start     length
               0         0         10240
               1         10240     20480
               2         30720     249848
               3         280568    249848
               4         530416    249848
               5         780264    110808
               6         30720     749544
               7         0         arbitrarily large

          Partition 7 covers the entire disk: 891072 sectors on an

          The ra files discussed above access the disk via the
          system's normal buffering mechanism and may be read and
          written without regard to physical disk records.  There is
          also a `raw' interface which provides for direct transmis-
          sion between the disk and the user's read or write buffer.
          A single read or write call results in exactly one I/O oper-
          ation and therefore raw I/O is considerably more efficient
          when many words are transmitted.  The names of the raw RA
          files begin with rra and end with a number which selects the
          same disk as the corresponding ra file.

          In raw I/O the buffer must begin on a word boundary, and
          counts should be a multiple of 512 bytes (a disk block).
          Likewise lseek(2) calls should specify a multiple of 512

          Several ioctl(2) calls apply to the raw devices.  They are
          probably useful only for bad block handling.

     RA(4)                                                       RA(4)

          UIOCHAR   The third argument to ioctl is a pointer to a
                    struct ud_unit:
                    struct ud_unit {
                         daddr_t radsize;/* size of the disk */
                         daddr_t rctsize;/* size of the RCT, including pad */
                         long medium;
                         short tracksz;
                         short groupsz;
                         short cylsz;
                         char rbns;
                         char copies;
                    which the system fills with geometry parameters
                    for the drive.

          UIORRCT   The third argument points to a struct ud_rctbuf:
                    struct ud_rctbuf {
                         caddr_t   buf;
                         int  lbn;

                    Buf points to a 512-byte buffer, into which block
                    lbn of the replacement and caching table (RCT) is
                    read.  As many copies of the RCT as necessary are
                    examined to find a readable copy of the block.

          UIOWRCT   The third argument points to a struct ud_rctbuf;
                    block lbn of the RCT is written in all copies.

          UIOREPL   The third argument points to a struct ud_repl :
                    struct ud_repl {
                         daddr_t replbn;/* good block */
                         daddr_t lbn;   /* bad block */
                         short prim;    /* nonzero if primary replacement */

                    A REPLACE command is sent to the controller,
                    requesting that attempts to access logical block
                    lbn henceforth be revectored to replacement block
                    replbn. Prim should be set nonzero if and only if
                    replbn is the primary replacement block for lbn.

          /dev/ra*, /dev/rra*

          MSCP Basic Disk Functions Manual
          DEC Standard Disk Format Specification

          In raw I/O read and write(2) truncate file offsets to 512-

     RA(4)                                                       RA(4)

          byte block boundaries, and write scribbles on the tail of
          incomplete blocks.  Thus, in programs that are likely to
          access raw devices, read, write and lseek(2) should always
          deal in 512-byte multiples.

          UIORRCT and UIOWRCT will misbehave if invoked on a partition
          that doesn't start at the beginning of the disk.  Partition
          7 (the whole disk) is the best choice.

          This driver should be split into a generic disk driver and a
          port driver, which communicate by exchanging MSCP packets.