INTRO(2) INTRO(2) NAME intro, errno - introduction to system calls and error numbers SYNOPSIS #include <errno.h> DESCRIPTION Section 2 of this manual describes all the entries into the system kernel. Calls that deal with the file system refer to directory entries by name. In order to read or write(2) data on a file, the file must be opened (open, pipe, creat(2)); an open file is known by a conventional integer value called a `file descriptor'. Certain open files admit control opera- tions that alter their behavior; see in particular ioctl, stream, and ttyld(4). Most system calls have an error return. An error condition is indicated by an otherwise impossible returned value. Almost always this is -1; the individual sections specify the details. An error number is also made available in the external variable errno. Errno is not cleared on successful calls, so it should be tested only after an error has occurred. There is a table of messages associated with each error, and a routine for printing the message; see perror(3). The pos- sible error numbers are not recited with each writeup in section 2, since many errors are possible for most of the calls. Here is a list of the error numbers, their names as defined in <errno.h>, and the messages available using perror. 0 Error 0 Unused. 1 EPERM Not owner Typically this error indicates an attempt to modify a file in some way forbidden except to its owner or super-user. It is also returned for attempts by ordi- nary users to do things allowed only to the super-user. 2 ENOENT No such file or directory This error occurs when a file name is specified and the file should exist but doesn't, or when one of the directories in a path name does not exist. 3 ESRCH No such process INTRO(2) INTRO(2) The process whose number was given to kill does not exist, or is already dead. 4 EINTR Interrupted system call An asynchronous signal (such as interrupt or quit), which the user has elected to catch, occurred during a system call. If execution is resumed after processing the signal, it will appear as if the interrupted system call returned this error condition. 5 EIO I/O error Some physical I/O error occurred during a read or write. This error may in some cases occur on a call following the one to which it actually applies. 6 ENXIO No such device or address I/O on a special file refers to a subdevice which does not exist, or beyond the limits of the device. It may also occur when, for example, a tape drive is not dialed in or no disk pack is loaded on a drive. 7 E2BIG Arg list too long An argument list longer than 10240 bytes is presented to exec. 8 ENOEXEC Exec format error A request is made to execute a file which, although it has the appropriate permissions, does not start with a valid magic number, see a.out(5). 9 EBADF Bad file number Either a file descriptor refers to no open file, or a read (resp. write) request is made to a file which is open only for writing (resp. reading). 10 ECHILD No children Wait and the process has no living or unwaited-for children. 11 EAGAIN No more processes In a fork, the system's process table is full or the user is not allowed to create any more processes. 12 ENOMEM Not enough core During an exec or break, a program asks for more core than the system is able to supply. This is not a tem- porary condition; the maximum core size is a system parameter. The error may also occur if the arrangement of text, data, and stack segments requires too many segmentation registers. 13 EACCES Permission denied INTRO(2) INTRO(2) An attempt was made to access a file in a way forbidden by the protection system. 14 EFAULT Bad address The system encountered a hardware fault in attempting to access the arguments of a system call. 15 ENOTBLK Block device required A plain file was mentioned where a block device was required, e.g. in mount. 16 EBUSY Mount device busy An attempt to mount a device that was already mounted or an attempt was made to dismount a device on which there is an active file directory (open file, current directory, mounted-on file, active text segment). 17 EEXIST File exists An existing file was mentioned in an inappropriate con- text, e.g. link. 18 EXDEV Cross-device link A link to a file on another device was attempted. 19 ENODEV No such device An attempt was made to apply an inappropriate system call to a device; e.g. read a write-only device. 20 ENOTDIR Not a directory A non-directory was specified where a directory is required, for example in a path name or as an argument to chdir. 21 EISDIR Is a directory An attempt to write on a directory. 22 EINVAL Invalid argument Some invalid argument: dismounting a non-mounted device, mentioning an unknown signal in signal, reading or writing a file for which seek has generated a nega- tive pointer. Also set by math functions, see intro(3). 23 ENFILE File table overflow The system's table of open files is full, and temporar- ily no more opens can be accepted. 24 EMFILE Too many open files The limit is 128 per process. 25 ENOTTY Not a typewriter The file mentioned in ioctl is not a terminal or one of INTRO(2) INTRO(2) the other devices to which these calls apply. 26 ETXTBSY Text file busy An attempt to execute a pure-procedure program which is currently open. Also an attempt to open for writing a pure-procedure program that is being executed. 27 EFBIG File too large The size of a file exceeded the maximum (about 1.0E9 bytes). 28 ENOSPC No space left on device During a write to an ordinary file, there is no free space left on the device. 29 ESPIPE Illegal seek An lseek was issued to a pipe or other non-seekable device. 30 EROFS Read-only file system An attempt to modify a file or directory was made on a device mounted read-only. 31 EMLINK Too many links An attempt to make more than 32767 links to a file. 32 EPIPE Broken pipe A write on a pipe for which there is no process to read the data. This condition normally generates a signal; the error is returned if the signal is ignored. 33 EDOM Math argument The argument of a function in the math package (3M) is out of the domain of the function. 34 ERANGE Result too large The value of a function in the math package (3M) is unrepresentable within machine precision. 35 ELOOP Link loop An endless cycle of symbolic links was encountered. SEE ALSO intro(3) BUGS ETXTBSY should happen only when a text file is open for writing.