USGMAKE(1) USGMAKE(1) NAME usgmake - maintain, update, and regenerate groups of programs SYNOPSIS usgmake [-f makefile] [-p] [-i] [-k] [-s] [-r] [-n] [-b] [-e] [-m] [-t] [-d] [-q] [names] DESCRIPTION The following is a brief description of all options and some special names: -f makefile Description file name. Makefile is assumed to be the name of a description file. A file name of - denotes the standard input. The contents of makefile override the built-in rules if they are present. -p Print out the complete set of macro definitions and target descriptions. -i Ignore error codes returned by invoked com- mands. This mode is entered if the fake target name .IGNORE appears in the description file. -k Abandon work on the current entry, but continue on other branches that do not depend on that entry. -s Silent mode. Do not print command lines before executing. This mode is also entered if the fake target name .SILENT appears in the description file. -r Do not use the built-in rules. -n No execute mode. Print commands, but do not execute them. Even lines beginning with an @ are printed. -b Compatibility mode for old makefiles. -e Environment variables override assignments within makefiles. -m Print a memory map showing text, data, and stack. This option is a no-operation on sys- tems without the getu system call. -t Touch the target files (causing them to be up- USGMAKE(1) USGMAKE(1) to-date) rather than issue the usual commands. -d Debug mode. Print out detailed information on files and times examined. -q Question. The make command returns a zero or non-zero status code depending on whether the target file is or is not up-to-date. .DEFAULT If a file must be made but there are no explicit commands or relevant built-in rules, the commands associated with the name .DEFAULT are used if it exists. .PRECIOUS Dependents of this target will not be removed when quit or interrupt are hit. .SILENT Same effect as the -s option. .IGNORE Same effect as the -i option. Make executes commands in makefile to update one or more target names. Name is typically a program. If no -f option is present, makefile, Makefile, s.makefile, and s.Makefile are tried in order. If makefile is -, the standard input is taken. More than one - makefile argument pair may appear. Make updates a target only if it depends on files that are newer than the target. All prerequisite files of a target are added recursively to the list of targets. Missing files are deemed to be out of date. Makefile contains a sequence of entries that specify depen- dencies. The first line of an entry is a blank-separated, non-null list of targets, then a :, then a (possibly null) list of prerequisite files or dependencies. Text following a ; and all following lines that begin with a tab are shell commands to be executed to update the target. The first line that does not begin with a tab or # begins a new depen- dency or macro definition. Shell commands may be continued across lines with the <backslash><new-line> sequence. Everything printed by make (except the initial tab) is passed directly to the shell as is. Thus, echo a\ b will produce ab exactly the same as the shell would. USGMAKE(1) USGMAKE(1) Sharp (#) and new-line surround comments. The following makefile says that pgm depends on two files a.o and b.o, and that they in turn depend on their corre- sponding source files (a.c and b.c) and a common file incl.h: pgm: a.o b.o cc a.o b.o -o pgm a.o: incl.h a.c cc -c a.c b.o: incl.h b.c cc -c b.c Command lines are executed one at a time, each by its own shell. The first one or two characters in a command can be the following: -, @, -@, or @-. If @ is present, printing of the command is suppressed. If - is present, make ignores an error. A line is printed when it is executed unless the -s option is present, or the entry .SILENT: is in makefile, or unless the initial character sequence contains a @. The -n option specifies printing without execution; however, if the command line has the string $(MAKE) in it, the line is always executed (see discussion of the MAKEFLAGS macro under Environment). The -t (touch) option updates the modified date of a file without executing any commands. Commands returning non-zero status normally terminate make. If the -i option is present, or the entry .IGNORE: appears in makefile, or the initial character sequence of the com- mand contains -. the error is ignored. If the -k option is present, work is abandoned on the current entry, but contin- ues on other branches that do not depend on that entry. The -b option allows old makefiles (those written for the old version of make) to run without errors. The difference between the old version of make and this version is that this version requires all dependency lines to have a (possi- bly null or implicit) command associated with them. The previous version of make assumed if no command was specified explicitly that the command was null. Interrupt and quit cause the target to be deleted unless the target is a dependency of the special name .PRECIOUS. Environment The environment is read by make. All variables are assumed to be macro definitions and processed as such. The environ- ment variables are processed before any makefile and after the internal rules; thus, macro assignments in a makefile override environment variables. The -e option causes the environment to override the macro assignments in a makefile. USGMAKE(1) USGMAKE(1) The MAKEFLAGS environment variable is processed by make as containing any legal input option (except -f, -p, and -d) defined for the command line. Further, upon invocation, make ``invents'' the variable if it is not in the environ- ment, puts the current options into it, and passes it on to invocations of commands. Thus, MAKEFLAGS always contains the current input options. This proves very useful for ``super-makes''. In fact, as noted above, when the -n option is used, the command $(MAKE) is executed anyway; hence, one can perform a make -n recursively on a whole software system to see what would have been executed. This is because the -n is put in MAKEFLAGS and passed to further invocations of $(MAKE). This is one way of debugging all of the makefiles for a software project without actually doing anything. Macros Entries of the form string1 = string2 are macro definitions. String2 is defined as all characters up to a comment charac- ter or an unescaped newline. Subsequent appearances of $(string1[:subst1=[subst2]]) are replaced by string2. The parentheses are optional if a single character macro name is used and there is no substitute sequence. The optional :subst1=subst2 is a substitute sequence. If it is speci- fied, all non-overlapping occurrences of subst1 in the named macro are replaced by subst2. Strings (for the purposes of this type of substitution) are delimited by blanks, tabs, new-line characters, and beginnings of lines. An example of the use of the substitute sequence is shown under Libraries. Internal Macros There are five internally maintained macros which are useful for writing rules for building targets. $* The macro $* stands for the file name part of the cur- rent dependent with the suffix deleted. It is evalu- ated only for inference rules. $@ The $@ macro stands for the full target name of the current target. It is evaluated only for explicitly named dependencies. $< The $< macro is only evaluated for inference rules or the .DEFAULT rule. It is the module which is out of date with respect to the target (i.e., the ``manufac- tured'' dependent file name). Thus, in the .c.o rule, the $< macro would evaluate to the .c file. An example for making optimized .o files from .c files is: .c.o: cc -c -O $*.c USGMAKE(1) USGMAKE(1) or: .c.o: cc -c -O $< $? The $? macro is evaluated when explicit rules from the makefile are evaluated. It is the list of prerequi- sites that are out of date with respect to the target; essentially, those modules which must be rebuilt. $% The $% macro is only evaluated when the target is an archive library member of the form lib(file.o). In this case, $@ evaluates to lib and $% evaluates to the library member, file.o. Four of the five macros can have alternative forms. When an upper case D or F is appended to any of the four macros the meaning is changed to ``directory part'' for D and ``file part'' for F. Thus, $(@D) refers to the directory part of the string $@. If there is no directory part, The only macro excluded from this alternative form is $?. The rea- sons for this are debatable. Suffixes Certain names (for instance, those ending with .o) have inferable prerequisites such as .c, .s, etc. If no update commands for such a file appear in makefile, and if an inferable prerequisite exists, that prerequisite is compiled to make the target. In this case, make has inference rules which allow building files from other files by examining the suffixes and determining an appropriate inference rule to use. The current default inference rules are: .c .c~ .sh .sh~ .c.o .c~.o .c~.c .s.o .s~.o .y.o .y~.o .l.o .l~.o .y.c .y~.c .l.c .c.a .c~.a .s~.a .h~.h The internal rules for make are contained in the source file rules.c for the make program. These rules can be locally modified. To print out the rules compiled into the make on any machine in a form suitable for recompilation, the fol- lowing command is used: make -fp - 2>/dev/null </dev/null The only peculiarity in this output is the (null) string which printf(3S) prints when handed a null string. A tilde in the above rules refers to an SCCS file (see sccsfile(5)). Thus, the rule .c~.o would transform an SCCS C source file into an object file (.o). Because the s. of the SCCS files is a prefix it is incompatible with make's suffix USGMAKE(1) USGMAKE(1) point-of-view. Hence, the tilde is a way of changing any file reference into an SCCS file reference. A rule with only one suffix (i.e. .c:) is the definition of how to build x from x.c. In effect, the other suffix is null. This is useful for building targets from only one source file (e.g., shell procedures, simple C programs). Additional suffixes are given as the dependency list for .SUFFIXES. Order is significant; the first possible name for which both a file and a rule exist is inferred as a pre- requisite. The default list is: .SUFFIXES: .o .c .y .l .s Here again, the above command for printing the internal rules will display the list of suffixes implemented on the current machine. Multiple suffix lists accumulate; .SUF- FIXES: with no dependencies clears the list of suffixes. Inference Rules The first example can be done more briefly: pgm: a.o b.o cc a.o b.o -o pgm a.o b.o: incl.h This is because make has a set of internal rules for build- ing files. The user may add rules to this list by simply putting them in the makefile. Certain macros are used by the default inference rules to permit the inclusion of optional matter in any resulting commands. For example, CFLAGS, LFLAGS, and YFLAGS are used for compiler options to cc(1), lex(1), and yacc(1) respec- tively. Again, the previous method for examining the cur- rent rules is recommended. The inference of prerequisites can be controlled. The rule to create a file with suffix .o from a file with suffix .c is specified as an entry with .c.o: as the target and no dependents. Shell commands associated with the target define the rule for making a .o file from a .c file. Any target that has no slashes in it and starts with a dot is identified as a rule and not a true target. Libraries If a target or dependency name contains parenthesis, it is assumed to be an archive library, the string within paren- thesis referring to a member within the library. Thus lib(file.o) and $(LIB)(file.o) both refer to an archive library which contains file.o. (This assumes the LIB macro USGMAKE(1) USGMAKE(1) has been previously defined.) The expression $(LIB)(file1.o file2.o) is not legal. Rules pertaining to archive libraries have the form .XX.a where the XX is the suffix from which the archive member is to be made. An unfortunate byproduct of the current implementation requires the XX to be different from the suffix of the archive member. Thus, one cannot have lib(file.o) depend upon file.o explicitly. The most common use of the archive interface follows. Here, we assume the source files are all C type source: lib: lib(file1.o) lib(file2.o) lib(file3.o) @echo lib is now up to date .c.a: $(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) $< ar rv $@ $*.o rm -f $*.o In fact, the .c.a rule listed above is built into make and is unnecessary in this example. A more interesting, but more limited example of an archive library maintenance con- struction follows: lib: lib(file1.o) lib(file2.o) lib(file3.o) $(CC) -c $(CFLAGS) $(?:.o=.c) ar rv lib $? rm $? @echo lib is now up to date .c.a:; Here the substitution mode of the macro expansions is used. The $? list is defined to be the set of object file names (inside lib) whose C source files are out of date. The sub- stitution mode translates the .o to .c. (Unfortunately, one cannot as yet transform to .c~; however, this may become possible in the future.) Note also, the disabling of the .c.a: rule, which would have created each object file, one by one. This particular construct speeds up archive library maintenance considerably. This type of construct becomes very cumbersome if the archive library contains a mix of assembly programs and C programs. FILES [Mm]akefile and s.[Mm]akefile SEE ALSO sh(1), mk(8). Make-A Program for Maintaining Computer Programs by S. I. Feldman. An Augmented Version of Make by E. G. Bradford. BUGS Some commands return non-zero status inappropriately; use -i to overcome the difficulty. Commands that are directly USGMAKE(1) USGMAKE(1) executed by the shell, notably cd(1), are ineffectual across new-lines in make. The syntax (lib(file1.o file2.o file3.o) is illegal. You cannot build lib(file.o) from file.o. The macro $(a:.o=.c~) doesn't work.