SED(1)                                                     SED(1)

     NAME
          sed - stream editor

     SYNOPSIS
          sed [ -n ] [ -e script ] [ -f sfile ] [ file ] ...

     DESCRIPTION
          Sed copies the named files (standard input default) to the
          standard output, edited according to a script of commands.
          The -f option causes the script to be taken from file sfile;
          these options accumulate.  If there is just one -e option
          and no -f's, the flag -e may be omitted.  The -n option sup-
          presses the default output.

          A script consists of editing commands, one per line, of the
          following form:

               [address [, address] ] function [arguments]

          In normal operation sed cyclically copies a line of input
          into a pattern space (unless there is something left after a
          `D' command), applies in sequence all commands whose
          addresses select that pattern space, and at the end of the
          script copies the pattern space to the standard output
          (except under -n) and deletes the pattern space.

          An address is either a decimal number that counts input
          lines cumulatively across files, a `$' that addresses the
          last line of input, or a context address, `/regular expres-
          sion/', in the style of ed(1) modified thus:

               The escape sequence `\n' matches a newline embedded in
               the pattern space.

          A command line with no addresses selects every pattern
          space.

          A command line with one address selects each pattern space
          that matches the address.

          A command line with two addresses selects the inclusive
          range from the first pattern space that matches the first
          address through the next pattern space that matches the sec-
          ond.  (If the second address is a number less than or equal
          to the line number first selected, only one line is
          selected.)  Thereafter the process is repeated, looking
          again for the first address.

          Editing commands can be applied only to non-selected pattern
          spaces by use of the negation function `!' (below).

     SED(1)                                                     SED(1)

          In the following list of functions the maximum number of
          permissible addresses for each function is indicated in
          parentheses.

          An argument denoted text consists of one or more lines, all
          but the last of which end with `\' to hide the newline.
          Backslashes in text are treated like backslashes in the
          replacement string of an `s' command, and may be used to
          protect initial blanks and tabs against the stripping that
          is done on every script line.

          An argument denoted rfile or wfile must terminate the com-
          mand line and must be preceded by exactly one blank.  Each
          wfile is created before processing begins.  There can be at
          most 10 distinct wfile arguments.

          (1)a\
          text
               Append.  Place text on the output before reading the
               next input line.

          (2)b label
               Branch to the `:' command bearing the label. If label
               is empty, branch to the end of the script.

          (2)c\
          text
               Change.  Delete the pattern space.  With 0 or 1 address
               or at the end of a 2-address range, place text on the
               output.  Start the next cycle.

          (2)d Delete the pattern space.  Start the next cycle.

          (2)D Delete the initial segment of the pattern space through
               the first newline.  Start the next cycle.

          (2)g Replace the contents of the pattern space by the con-
               tents of the hold space.

          (2)G Append the contents of the hold space to the pattern
               space.

          (2)h Replace the contents of the hold space by the contents
               of the pattern space.

          (2)H Append the contents of the pattern space to the hold
               space.

          (1)i\
          text
               Insert.  Place text on the standard output.

     SED(1)                                                     SED(1)

          (2)n Copy the pattern space to the standard output.  Replace
               the pattern space with the next line of input.

          (2)N Append the next line of input to the pattern space with
               an embedded newline.  (The current line number
               changes.)

          (2)p Print.  Copy the pattern space to the standard output.

          (2)P Copy the initial segment of the pattern space through
               the first newline to the standard output.

          (1)q Quit.  Branch to the end of the script.  Do not start a
               new cycle.

          (2)r rfile
               Read the contents of rfile. Place them on the output
               before reading the next input line.

          (2)s/regular expression/replacement/flags
               Substitute the replacement string for instances of the
               regular expression in the pattern space.  Any character
               may be used instead of `/'.  For a fuller description
               see ed(1). Flags is zero or more of

               g    Global.  Substitute for all nonoverlapping
                    instances of the regular expression rather than
                    just the first one.

               p    Print the pattern space if a replacement was made.

               w wfile
                    Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile if a
                    replacement was made.

          (2)t label
               Test.  Branch to the `:' command bearing the label if
               any substitutions have been made since the most recent
               reading of an input line or execution of a `t'.  If
               label is empty, branch to the end of the script.

          (2)w wfile
               Write.  Append the pattern space to wfile.

          (2)x Exchange the contents of the pattern and hold spaces.

          (2)y/string1/string2/
               Transform.  Replace all occurrences of characters in
               string1 with the corresponding character in string2.
               The lengths of string1 and string2 must be equal.

          (2)! function

     SED(1)                                                     SED(1)

               Don't.  Apply the function (or group, if function is
               `{') only to lines not selected by the address(es).

          (0): label
               This command does nothing; it bears a label for `b' and
               `t' commands to branch to.

          (1)= Place the current line number on the standard output as
               a line.

          (2){ Execute the following commands through a matching `}'
               only when the pattern space is selected.

          (0)  An empty command is ignored.

     SEE ALSO
          ed(1), grep(1), awk(1), lex(1), cut(1), split(1)