READNEWS(1) READNEWS(1) NAME checknews, readnews - read news articles SYNOPSIS checknews [ ynqve ] [ readnews-options ] readnews [ -a date ] [ -n newsgroup ] [ -t titles ] [ -lprxhfuM ] [ -c [ mailer ] ] readnews -s DESCRIPTION Checknews reports whether there is news present. y report only if news is present n report only if news is absent q turn off reports; nonzero exit status indicates news. v alters the y message to show the name of the first newsgroup containing unread news. Doubling v (e.g. vv) causes an explanation of any claim of new news, and is useful if checknews and readnews disagree. e executes readnews(1) if there is news If there are no options, y is the default. Readnews without arguments prints unread articles. There are several interfaces available besides the default: Flag Interface -M An interface to Mail(1). -c A /bin/mail(1)-like interface. -c `mailer' All selected articles written to a temporary file. Then the mailer is invoked. The name of the tem- porary file is referenced with a `%'. Thus, `mail -f %' will invoke mail on a temporary file con- sisting of all selected messages. -p All selected articles are sent to the standard output. No questions asked. -l Only the titles output. The .newsrc file will not be updated. READNEWS(1) READNEWS(1) The -r flag causes the articles to be printed in reverse order. The -f flag prevents any followup articles from being printed. The -h flag causes articles to be printed in a less verbose format, and is intended for terminals running at 300 baud. the -u flag causes the .newsrc file to be updated every 5 minutes, in case of an unreliable system. (Note that if the newsrc file is updated, the x command will not restore it to its original contents.) The following flags determine the selection of articles. -n newsgroups Select all articles that belong to newsgroups. -t titles Select all articles whose titles contain one of the strings specified by titles. -a [ date ] Select all articles that were posted past the given date. -x Ignore .newsrc file. That is, select articles that have already been read as well as new ones. readnews maintains a .newsrc file in the user's home direc- tory that specifies all news articles already read. It is updated at the end of each reading session in which the -x or -l options weren't specified. If the environment vari- able NEWSRC is present, it should be the path name of a file to be used in place of .newsrc. If the user wishes, an options line may be placed in the .newsrc file. This line starts with the word options (left justified) followed by the list of standard options just as they would be typed on the command line. Such a list may include: the -n flag along with a newsgroup list; a favorite interface; and/or the -r or -t flag. Continuation lines are specified by following lines beginning with a space or tab character. Similarly, options can be specified in the NEWSOPTS environment parameter. Where conflicts exist, option on the command line take precedence, followed by the .newsrc options line, and lastly the NEWSOPTS parameter. readnews -s will print the newsgroup subscription list. When user uses the reply command of the default or mail interfaces, the environment parameter MAILER will be used to determine which mailer to use. The default is usually /bin/mail. If the user so desires, he may specify a specific paging progam for articles. The environment parameter PAGER should READNEWS(1) READNEWS(1) be set to the paging program. The name of the article is referenced with a `%', as in the -c option. If no `%' is present, the article will be piped to the program. Paging may be disabled by setting PAGER to a null value. COMMANDS This section lists the commands you can type to the msgs and /bin/mail interface prompts. The msgs interface will sug- gest some common commands in brackets. Just hitting return is the same as typing the first command. For example, `[ynq]' means that the commands ``y'' (yes), ``n'' (no), and `q' (quit) are common responses, and that ``y'' is the default. Command Meaning y Yes. Prints current article and goes on to next. n No. Goes on to next article without printing current one. In the /bin/mail interface, this means `go on to the next article', which will have the same effect as `y' or just hitting return. q Quit. The .newsrc file will be updated if -l or -x were not on the command line. c Cancel the article. Only the author or the super user can do this. r Reply. Reply to article's author via mail. You are placed in your EDITOR with a header specifying To, Sub- ject, and References lines taken from the message. You may change or add headers, as appropriate. You add the text of the reply after the blank line, and then exit the editor. The resulting message is mailed to the author of the article. rd Reply directly. You are placed in $MAILER (`mail' by default) in reply to the author. Type the text of the reply and then control-D. f [title] Submit a follow up article. Normally you should leave off the title, since the system will generate one for you. You will be placed in your EDITOR to compose the text of the followup. fd Followup directly, without edited headers. This is like f, but the headers of the article are not included in the editor buffer. N [newsgroup] Go to the next newsgroup or named newsgroup. READNEWS(1) READNEWS(1) s [file] Save. The article is appended to the named file. The default is `Articles'. If the first character of the file name is `|', the rest of the file name is taken as the name of a program, which is executed with the text of the article as standard input. If the first charac- ter of the file name is `/', it is taken as a full path name of a file. If $NEWSBOX (in the environment) is set to a full path name, and the file contains no `/', the file is saved in $NEWSBOX. Otherwise, it is saved relative to $HOME. # Report the name and size of the newsgroup. e Erase. Forget that this article was read. h Print a more verbose header. H Print a very verbose header, containing all known information about the article. U Unsubscribe from this newsgroup. Also goes on to the next newsgroup. d Read a digest. Breaks up a digest into separate arti- cles and permits you to read and reply to each piece. D [number] Decrypt. Invokes a Caesar decoding program on the body of the message. This is used to decrypt rotated jokes posted to net.jokes, to avoid possible offense to unin- terested readers. The title of the joke should indi- cate the nature of the problem, enabling people to decide whether to decrypt it or not. Normally the Caesar program does a character frequency count on each line of the article separately, so that lines which are not rotated will be shown in plain text. This works well unless the line is short, in which case it sometimes gets the wrong rotation. An explicit number rotation (usu- ally 13) may be given to force a particular shift. v Print the current version of the news software. ! Shell escape. number Go to number. +[n] Skip n articles. The articles skipped are recorded as `unread' and will be offered to you again the next time you read news. READNEWS(1) READNEWS(1) - Go back to last article. This is a toggle, typing it twice returns you to the original article. x Exit. Like quit except that .newsrc is not updated. X [system] Transmit article to the named system. The commands c, f, fd, r, rd, e, h, H, and s can be followed by -'s to refer to the previous article. Thus, when reply- ing to an article using the msgs interface, you should nor- mally type `r-' (or ``re-'') since by the time you enter a command, you are being offerred the next article. EXAMPLES readnews Read all unread articles using the msgs interface. The .newsrc file is updated at the end of the ses- sion. readnews -c ``ed %'' -l Invoke the ed(1) text editor on a file containing the titles of all unread articles. The .newsrc file is not updated at the end of the session. readnews -n all !fa.all -M -r Read all unread articles except articles whose newsgroups begin with "fa." via Mail(1) in reverse order. The .newsrc file is updated at the end of the session. readnews -p -n all -a last thursday Print every unread article since last Thursday. The .newsrc file is updated at the end of the ses- sion. readnews -p > /dev/null & Discard all unread news. This is useful after returning from a long trip. FILES /usr/spool/news/newsgroup/number News articles /usr/lib/news/active Active newsgroups and numbers of articles /usr/lib/news/help Help file for msgs interface ~/.newsrc Options and list of previously read articles SEE ALSO postnews(1) mail(1), BUGS READNEWS(1) READNEWS(1) Netnews and readnews use the same text in different churches.