man(1) Manual page archive

     LS(1)                                                       LS(1)

          ls - list contents of directory

          ls [ -abcdfilqrstu1CFLR ] name ...

          For each directory argument, ls lists the contents of the
          directory; for each file argument, ls repeats its name and
          any other information requested.  The output is sorted
          alphabetically by default.  When no argument is given, the
          current directory is listed.  When several arguments are
          given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but
          file arguments appear before directories and their contents.

          Output to a terminal is normally listed in multiple columns.
          If the standard output is not a terminal, the default format
          is to list one entry per line.

          There are an unbelievable number of options:

          -l   List in long format, giving mode (see below), number of
               links, owner, group, size in bytes, and time of last
               modification for each file.  Symbolic links are identi-
               fied by a link count marked `L'; the link count is that
               of the ultimate file.  If the file is a special file
               the size field will instead contain the major and minor
               device numbers.

          -t   Sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by
               name, as is normal.

          -a   List all entries; usually `.'  and `..'  are sup-

          -s   Give size in kilobytes (kilo=1024) for each entry.

          -d   If argument is a directory, list its name, not its con-

          -r   Reverse the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic or
               oldest first as appropriate.

          -u   Under -t sort by time of last access; under -l give
               access time.

          -c   Under -t sort by time of inode change; under -l give
               inode change time.

          -i   Print i-number in first column of the report for each

     LS(1)                                                       LS(1)

               file listed.

          -L   Under -l for each symbolic link give the immediate, not
               the ultimate, link count and append the name pointed

          -f   Force each argument to be interpreted as a directory
               and list the name found in each slot.  This option
               turns off -l, -t, -s, and -r, and turns on -a; the
               order is the order in which entries appear in the

          -1   force one entry per line output format, e.g. to a tele-

          -C   force multi-column output, e.g. to a file or a pipe

          -q   force printing of non-graphic characters in file names
               as the character `?'; this normally happens only if the
               output device is a teletype

          -F   cause directories to be marked with a trailing `/' and
               executable files to be marked with a trailing `*'

          -R   recursively list subdirectories encountered.

          The mode printed under the -l option contains 11 characters
          which are interpreted as follows: the first character is

          d    if the entry is a directory;
          b    if the entry is a block-type special file;
          c    if the entry is a character-type special file;
          -    if the entry is a plain file.

          The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three
          bits each.  The first set refers to owner permissions; the
          next to permissions to others in the same user-group; and
          the last to all others.  Within each set the three charac-
          ters indicate permission respectively to read, to write, or
          to execute the file as a program.  For a directory, `exe-
          cute' permission is interpreted to mean permission to search
          the directory for a specified file.  The permissions are
          indicated as follows:

          r  if the file is readable;
          w  if the file is writable;
          x  if the file is executable;
          -  if the indicated permission is not granted.

          The group-execute permission character is given as s if the
          file has set-group-ID mode; likewise the user-execute per-
          mission character is given as s if the file has set-user-ID

     LS(1)                                                       LS(1)


          The last character of the mode (normally `x' or `-') is t if
          the 1000 bit of the mode is on.  See chmod(1) for the mean-
          ing of this mode.

          When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, a
          total count of blocks is printed.

          /etc/passwd, /etc/group to get ID's for `ls -l'.

          The output device is assumed to be 80 columns wide.
          The option setting based on whether the output is a teletype
          is undesirable as `ls -s' behaves differently from
          `ls -s | lpr'.  On the other hand, not doing this setting
          would make many shell scripts which use ls almost certain
          Option -s counts unwritten holes as if they were real data.