LD(1) LD(1) NAME ld - link editor SYNOPSIS ld [ option ] ... file ... DESCRIPTION Ld combines several object programs into one, resolves external references, and searches libraries. In the sim- plest case several object files are given, and ld combines them, producing an object module which can be either exe- cuted or become the input for a further ld run. (In the latter case, the -r option must be given to preserve the relocation bits.) The output of ld is left on a.out. This file is made executable only if no errors occurred during the load. The argument routines are concatenated in the order speci- fied. The entry point of the output is the beginning of the first routine (unless the -e option is specified). If any argument is a library, it is searched exactly once at the point it is encountered in the argument list. Only those routines defining an unresolved external reference are loaded. If a routine from a library references another rou- tine in the library, and the library has not been processed by ranlib (see ar(1)), the referenced routine must appear after the referencing routine in the library. Thus the order of programs within libraries may be important. The first member of a library should be a file named `__.SYM- DEF', which is understood to be a dictionary for the library as produced by ranlib(1); the dictionary is searched itera- tively to satisfy as many references as possible. The symbols `_etext', `_edata' and `_end' (`etext', `edata' and `end' in C) are reserved, and if referred to, are set to the first location above the program, the first location above initialized data, and the first location above all data respectively. It is erroneous to define these symbols. Ld understands several options. Except for -l, they should appear before the file names. -A This option specifies incremental loading, i.e. link- ing is to be done in a manner so that the resulting object may be read into an already executing program. The next argument is the name of a file whose symbol table will be taken as a basis on which to define addi- tional symbols. Only newly linked material will be entered into the text and data portions of a.out, but LD(1) LD(1) the new symbol table will reflect every symbol defined before and after the incremental load. This argument must appear before any other object file in the argu- ment list. The -T option may be used as well, and will be taken to mean that the newly linked segment will commence at the corresponding address (which must be a multiple of 1024). The default value is the old value of _end. -D Take the next argument as a hexadecimal number and pad the data segment with zero bytes to the indicated length. -d Force definition of common storage even if the -r flag is present. -e The following argument is taken to be the name of the entry point of the loaded program; location 0 is the default. -lx This option is an abbreviation for the library name `/lib/libx.a', where x is a string. If that does not exist, ld tries `/usr/lib/libx.a' A library is searched when its name is encountered, so the placement of a -l is significant. -M produce a primitive load map, listing the names of the files which will be loaded. -N Do not make the text portion read only or sharable. (Use "magic number" 0407.) -n Arrange (by giving the output file a 0410 "magic num- ber") that when the output file is executed, the text portion will be read-only and shared among all users executing the file. This involves moving the data areas up to the first possible 1024 byte boundary fol- lowing the end of the text. -o The name argument after -o is used as the name of the ld output file, instead of a.out. -r Generate relocation bits in the output file so that it can be the subject of another ld run. This flag also prevents final definitions from being given to common symbols, and suppresses the `undefined symbol' diagnos- tics. -S `Strip' the output by removing all symbols except locals and globals. -s `Strip' the output, that is, remove the symbol table LD(1) LD(1) and relocation bits to save space (but impair the use- fulness of the debuggers). This information can also be removed by strip(1). -T The next argument is a hexadecimal number which sets the text segment origin. The default origin is 0. -t (`trace') Print the name of each file as it is pro- cessed. -u Take the following argument as a symbol and enter it as undefined in the symbol table. This is useful for loading wholly from a library, since initially the sym- bol table is empty and an unresolved reference is needed to force the loading of the first routine. -X Save local symbols except for those whose names begin with `L'. This option is used by cc(1) to discard internally-generated labels while retaining symbols local to routines. -x Do not preserve local (non-.globl) symbols in the out- put symbol table; only enter external symbols. This option saves some space in the output file. -ysym Indicate each file in which sym appears, its type and whether the file defines or references it. Many such options may be given to trace many symbols. (It is usually necessary to begin sym with an `_', as external C, FORTRAN and Pascal variables begin with under- scores.) -z Arrange for the process to be loaded on demand from the resulting executable file (413 format) rather than preloaded. This is the default. Results in a 1024 byte header on the output file followed by a text and data segment each of which have size a multiple of 1024 bytes (being padded out with nulls in the file if nec- essary). With this format the first few BSS segment symbols may actually appear (from the output of size(1)) to live in the data segment; this to avoid wasting the space resulting from data segment size roundup. FILES /lib/lib*.a libraries /usr/lib/lib*.a more libraries /usr/local/lib/lib*.a still more libraries a.out output file SEE ALSO LD(1) LD(1) as(1), ar(1), cc(1), ranlib(1), size(1), nm(1) BUGS There is no way to force data to be page aligned.