ROFF(1)                                                   ROFF(1)

     NAME
          roff  -  format text

     SYNOPSIS
          roff [ +n ] [ -n ] [ -s ] [ -h ] file ...

          nroff -mr [ option ] ... file ...
          troff -mr [ option ] ... file ...

     DESCRIPTION
          Roff formats text according to control lines embedded in the
          text in the given files.  Encountering a nonexistent file
          terminates printing.  Incoming inter-terminal messages are
          turned off during printing.  The optional flag arguments
          mean:
          +n   Start printing at the first page with number n.
          -n   Stop printing at the first page numbered higher than n.
          -s   Stop before each page (including the first) to allow
               paper manipulation; resume on receipt of an interrupt
               signal.
          -h   Insert tabs in the output stream to replace spaces
               whenever appropriate.

          Input consists of intermixed text lines, which contain
          information to be formatted, and request lines, which con-
          tain instructions about how to format it.  Request lines
          begin with a distinguished control character, normally a
          period.

          Output lines may be filled as nearly as possible with words
          without regard to input lineation.  Line breaks may be
          caused at specified places by certain commands, or by the
          appearance of an empty input line or an input line beginning
          with a space.

          The capabilities of roff are specified in the attached
          Request Summary.  Numerical values are denoted there by n or
          +n, titles by t, and single characters by c.  Numbers
          denoted +n may be signed + or -, in which case they signify
          relative changes to a quantity, otherwise they signify an
          absolute resetting.  Missing n fields are ordinarily taken
          to be 1, missing t fields to be empty, and c fields to shut
          off the appropriate special interpretation.

          Running titles usually appear at top and bottom of every
          page.  They are set by requests like

                    .he 'part1'part2'part3'

          Part1 is left justified, part2 is centered, and part3 is

     ROFF(1)                                                   ROFF(1)

          right justified on the page.  Any % sign in a title is
          replaced by the current page number.  Any nonblank may serve
          as a quote.

          ASCII tab characters are replaced in the input by a
          replacement character, normally a space, according to the
          column settings given by a .ta command.  (See .tr for how to
          convert this character on output.)

          Automatic hyphenation of filled output is done under control
          of .hy.  When a word contains a designated hyphenation
          character, that character disappears from the output and
          hyphens can be introduced into the word at the marked places
          only.

          The -mr option of nroff or troff(1) simulates roff to the
          greatest extent possible.

     FILES
          /usr/lib/suftab     suffix hyphenation tables
          /tmp/rtm? temporary

     BUGS
          Roff is the simplest of the text formatting programs, and is
          utterly frozen.

     ROFF(1)                                                   ROFF(1)

                              REQUEST SUMMARY

     Request    Break Initial Meaning
     the current line is stopped.

     ROFF(1)                                                   ROFF(1)

     .ti 0 .li .ce n      yes   -       Center the next n input lines,
                              without     filling.     .ti    0    .li
                              .de xx     no    -       Define  parame-
                              terless  macro  to be invoked by request
                              `.xx' (definition ends on line beginning
                              `..').          .ti         0        .li
                              .ds        yes   no      Double   space;
                              same    as   `.ls   2'.    .ti   0   .li
                              .ef t      no    t=      Even foot title
                              becomes      t.       .ti      0     .li
                              .eh t      no    t=      Even head title
                              becomes      t.       .ti      0     .li
                              .fi        yes   yes     Begin   filling
                              output     lines.      .ti     0     .li
                              .fo        no    t=      All foot titles
                              are       t.        .ti       0      .li
                              .hc c      no    none    Hyphenation
                              character   becomes   `c'.   .ti  0  .li
                              .he t      no    t=      All head titles
                              are       t.        .ti       0      .li
                              .hx        no    -       Title lines are
                              suppressed.        .ti       0       .li
                              .hy n      no    n=1     Hyphenation  is
                              done,  if  n=1; and is not done, if n=0.
                              .ti                0                 .li
                              .ig        no    -       Ignore    input
                              lines  through  a  line  beginning  with
                              `..'.          .ti         0         .li
                              .in +n     yes   -       Indent n spaces
                              from   left   margin.   .ti  0  .li  .ix
                              +n     no    -       Same as  `.in'  but
                              without     break.      .ti     0    .li
                              .li n      no    -       Literal,  treat
                              next   n  lines  as  text.   .ti  0  .li
                              .ll +n     no    n=65    Line     length
                              including indent is n characters.  .ti 0
                              .li .ls +n     yes   n=1     Line  spac-
                              ing set to n lines per output line.  .ti
                              0  .li  .m1 n      no    n=2     Put   n
                              blank  lines between the top of page and
                              head     title.      .ti      0      .li
                              .m2 n      no    n=2     n  blank  lines
                              put between head title and beginning  of
                              text     on    page.     .ti    0    .li
                              .m3 n      no    n=1     n  blank  lines
                              put  between end of text and foot title.
                              .ti  0  .li   .m4 n      no    n=3     n
                              blank  lines  put between the foot title
                              and the  bottom  of  page.   .ti  0  .li
                              .na        yes   no      Stop  adjusting
                              the   right   margin.    .ti    0    .li
                              .ne n      no    -       Begin new page,
                              if .ev1 .}E .if0 'sp   2640u-1v-1p  .if0
                              'sp   2640u-3v  .ifn  'sp  2640u-4v .ift

                              .tl % .ev .ev1  .}C  .}E  .ie0  'sp   2v
                              .el'sp   3v  .".ps0-1 .tl ROFF(1)ROFF(1)
                              .ft1 .ps0 .ie0 'sp 1.5v  .el'sp  3v  .ev
                              .ns  .if 0 .2C n output lines cannot fit
                              on   present   page.     .ti    0    .li
                              .nn +n     no    -       The next n out-
                              put lines are not numbered.  .ti  0  .li
                              .n1        no    no      Add  5  to page
                              offset; number lines in margin from 1 on
                              each      page.       .ti      0     .li
                              .n2 n      no    no      Add 5  to  page
                              offset;  number  lines  from  n; stop if
                              n=0.          .ti         0          .li
                              .ni +n     no    n=0     Line    numbers
                              are   indented    n.     .ti    0    .li
                              .nf        yes   no      Stop    filling
                              output     lines.      .ti     0     .li
                              .nx file   -     Switch input to `file'.
                              .ti 0  .li  .of t      no    t=      Odd
                              foot   title   becomes  t.   .ti  0  .li
                              .oh t      no    t=      Odd head  title
                              becomes      t.       .ti      0     .li
                              .pa +n     yes   n=1     Same as  `.bp'.
                              .ti 0 .li .pl +n     no    n=66    Total
                              paper length taken to be n lines.  .ti 0
                              .li  .po +n     no    n=0     Page  off-
                              set.   All  lines  are  preceded  by   n
                              spaces.          .ti        0        .li
                              .ro        no    arabic  Roman page num-
                              bers.          .ti         0         .li
                              .sk n      no    -       Produce n blank
                              pages  starting  next  page.   .ti 0 .li
                              .sp n      yes   -       Insert block of
                              n  blank  lines,  except at top of page.
                              .ti                0                 .li
                              .ss        yes   yes     Single    space
                              output lines,  equivalent  to  `.ls  1'.
                              .ti                 0                .li
                              .ta n n..        -       Pseudotab  set-
                              tings.  Initial tab settings are columns
                              9    17    25    ...     .ti    0    .li
                              .tc c      no    space   Tab replacement
                              character  becomes  `c'.   .ti   0   .li
                              .ti +n     yes   -       Temporarily
                              indent next output line n spaces.   .ti0
                              .li .tr cdef.. no    -       Translate c
                              into  d,  e  into  f,  etc.   .ti0   .li
                              .ul n      no    -       Underline   the
                              letters and numbers in the next n  input
                              lines.    .br  .tr      .}N  .wh-.5p  }C
                              .ll1560u .}P

                              .ev1 .}E .if0 'sp  2640u-1v-1p .if0  'sp
                               2640u-3v  .ifn 'sp  2640u-4v .ift .tl %

                              .ev .ev1 .}C .}E .ie0 'sp  2v .el'sp  3v
                              .".ps0-1  .tl  ROFF(1)ROFF(1)  .ft1 .ps0
                              .ie0 'sp 1.5v .el'sp 3v .ev  .ns  .if  0
                              .2C

                              .ev1 .}E .if0 'sp  2640u-1v-1p .if0  'sp
                               2640u-3v  .ifn 'sp  2640u-4v .ift .tl %