man(1) Manual page archive

     ls  -  list contents of directory

     ls [ -ltasdruifg ] name ...

     For each directory argument, ls lists the contents of the
     directory; for each file argument, ls repeats its name and
     any other information requested.  The output is sorted
     alphabetically by default.  When no argument is given, the
     current directory is listed.  When several arguments are
     given, the arguments are first sorted appropriately, but
     file arguments appear before directories and their contents.
     There are several options:

     -l  list in long format, giving mode, number of links,
         owner, size in bytes, and time of last modification for
         each file.  (See below.)  If the file is a special file
         the size field will instead contain the major and minor
         device numbers.

     -t  sort by time modified (latest first) instead of by name,
         as is normal

     -a  list all entries; usually those beginning with `.' are

     -s  give size in blocks for each entry

     -d  if argument is a directory, list only its name, not its
         contents (mostly used with -l to get status on direc-

     -r  reverse the order of sort to get reverse alphabetic or
         oldest first as appropriate

     -u  use time of last access instead of last modification for
         sorting (-t) or printing (-l)

     -i  print i-number in first column of the report for each
         file listed

     -f  force each argument to be interpreted as a directory and
         list the name found in each slot.  This option turns off
         -l, -t, -s, and -r, and turns on -a; the order is the
         order in which entries appear in the directory.

     -g  Give group ID instead of owner ID in long listing.

     The mode printed under the -l option contains 11 characters
     which are interpreted as follows: the first character is


     d  if the entry is a directory;
     b  if the entry is a block-type special file;
     c  if the entry is a character-type special file;
     -  if the entry is a plain file.

     The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three
     bits each.  The first set refers to owner permissions; the
     next to permissions to others in the same user-group; and
     the last to all others.  Within each set the three charac-
     ters indicate permission respectively to read, to write, or
     to execute the file as a program.  For a directory, `exe-
     cute' permission is interpreted to mean permission to search
     the directory for a specified file.  The permissions are
     indicated as follows:

     r  if the file is readable
     w  if the file is writable
     x  if the file is executable
     -  if the indicated permission is not granted

     The group-execute permission character is given as s if the
     file has set-group-ID mode; likewise the user-execute per-
     mission character is given as s if the file has set-user-ID

     The last character of the mode is normally blank but is
     printed as ``t'' if the 1000 bit of the mode is on.  See
     chmod (I) for the current meaning of this mode.

     /etc/passwd to get user ID's for ls -l.