dc - desk calculator

     dc [ file ]

     Dc is an arbitrary precision arithmetic package.  Ordinarily
     it operates on decimal integers, but one may specify an
     input base, output base, and a number of fractional digits
     to be maintained.  The overall structure of dc is a stacking
     (reverse Polish) calculator.  If an argument is given, input
     is taken from that file until its end, then from the stan-
     dard input.  The following constructions are recognized:

           The value of the number is pushed on the stack.  A
           number is an unbroken string of the digits 0-9.  It
           may be preceded by an underscore _ to input a negative
           number.  Numbers may contain decimal points.

     +  -  *  %  ^
           The top two values on the stack are added (+), sub-
           tracted (-), multiplied (*), divided (/), remaindered
           (%), or exponentiated (^).  The two entries are popped
           off the stack; the result is pushed on the stack in
           their place.  Any fractional part of an exponent is

     sx    The top of the stack is popped and stored into a reg-
           ister named x, where x may be any character.  If the s
           is capitalized, x is treated as a stack and the value
           is pushed on it.

     lx    The value in register x is pushed on the stack.  The
           register x is not altered.  All registers start with
           zero value.  If the l is capitalized, register x is
           treated as a stack and its top value is popped onto
           the main stack.

     d     The top value on the stack is duplicated.

     p     The top value on the stack is printed.  The top value
           remains unchanged.

     f     All values on the stack and in registers are printed.

     q     exits the program.  If executing a string, the recur-
           sion level is popped by two.  If q is capitalized, the
           top value on the stack is popped and the string execu-
           tion level is popped by that value.


     x     treats the top element of the stack as a character
           string and executes it as a string of dc commands.

     [ ... ]puts the bracketed ascii string onto the top of the

     <x       >x  =x
           The top two elements of the stack are popped and com-
           pared.  Register x is executed if they obey the stated

     v     replaces the top element on the stack by its square
           root.  Any existing fractional part of the argument is
           taken into account, but otherwise the scale factor is

     !     interprets the rest of the line as a UNIX command.

     c     All values on the stack are popped.

     i     The top value on the stack is popped and used as the
           number radix for further input.

     o     The top value on the stack is popped and used as the
           number radix for further output.

     k     the top of the stack is popped, and that value is used
           as a non-negative scale factor: the appropriate number
           of places are printed on output, and maintained during
           multiplication, division, and exponentiation.  The
           interaction of scale factor, input base, and output
           base will be reasonable if all are changed together.

     z     The stack level is pushed onto the stack.

     ?     A line of input is taken from the input source (usu-
           ally the console) and executed.

     An example which prints the first ten values of n! is


     bc (I), which is a preprocessor for dc providing infix nota-
     tion and a C-like syntax which implements functions and
     reasonable control structures for programs.

     (x) ? for unrecognized character x.
     (x) ? for not enough elements on the stack to do what was
     asked by command x.
     `Out of space' when the free list is exhausted (too many


     `Out of headers' for too many numbers being kept around.
     `Out of pushdown' for too many items on the stack.
     `Nesting Depth' for too many levels of nested execution.