NDB(8) NDB(8) NAME query, mkhash, mkdb, cs, csquery, dns, dnsquery, ipquery, dnsdebug, mkhosts, mobile, ccs - network database SYNOPSIS ndb/query [ -f dbfile ] attr value [ rattr ] ndb/ipquery attr value rattr... ndb/mkhash file attr ndb/cs [ -n ] [ -f dbfile ] [ -x netmtpt ] ndb/csquery [ -s ] [ server [ addr... ] ] ndb/dns [ -rRsn ] [ -f dbfile ] [ -x netmtpt ] [ -z program ] ndb/dnsquery ndb/dnsdebug [ -rx ] [ [ @server ] domain-name [ type ] ] ndb/mkdb ndb/mobile ndb/ccs [ -d ] [ -s srv ] [ -m mnt ] [ cssrv ] DESCRIPTION The network database holds administrative information used by network programs such as dhcpd(8), ipconfig(8), con(1), etc. Ndb/query searches the database for an attribute of type attr and value value. If rattr is not specified, all entries matched by the search are returned. If rattr is specified, the value of the first pair with attribute rattr of all the matched entries is returned. Ndb/ipquery uses ndbipinfo (see ndb(2)) to search for the values of the attributes rattr corresponding to the system with entries of attribute type attr and value value. Ndb/mkhash creates a hash file for all entries with attribute attr in database file file. The hash files are used by ndb/query and by the ndb library routines. Ndb/cs is a server used by dial(2) to translate network names. It is started at boot time. It finds out what net- works are configured by looking for /net/*/clone when it starts. It can also be told about networks by writing to /net/cs a message of the form: add net1 net2 ... Ndb/cs also sets the system name in /dev/sysname if it can figure it out. The options are: -f supplies the name of the data base file to use, default /lib/ndb/local. NDB(8) NDB(8) -x specifies the mount point of the network. -n causes cs to do nothing but set the system name. Ndb/csquery can be used to query ndb/cs to see how it resolves addresses. Ndb/csquery prompts for addresses and prints out what ndb/cs returns. Server defaults to /net/cs. If any addrs are specified, ndb/csquery prints their trans- lations and immediately exits. The exit status will be nil only if all addresses were successfully translated The -s flag sets exit status without printing any results. Ndb/dns is a server used by ndb/cs and by remote systems to translate Internet domain names. Ndb/dns is started at boot time. By default dns serves only requests written to /net/dns. The options are: -f supplies the name of the data base file to use, default /lib/ndb/local. -x specifies the mount point of the network. -s also answer domain requests sent to UDP port 53. -n whenever a zone that we serve changes, send UDP NOTIFY messages to any dns slaves for that zone. -z whenever we receive a UDP NOTIFY message, run program with the domain name of the area as its argument. -r send `recursive' queries, asking the other servers to complete lookups. -R ignore the `recursive' bit on incoming requests. do not complete lookups on behalf of remote systems. When the -r option is specified, the servers used come from the dns attribute in the database. For example, to specify a set of dns servers that will resolve requests for systems on the network mh-net: ipnet=mh-net ip=22.214.171.124 ipmask=255.255.0.0 dns=ns1.cs.bell-labs.com dns=ns2.cs.bell-labs.com dom=ns1.cs.bell-labs.com ip=126.96.36.199 dom=ns2.cs.bell-labs.com ip=188.8.131.52 The server for a domain is indicated by a database entry containing both a dom and a ns attribute. For example, the entry for the Internet root is: dom= NDB(8) NDB(8) ns=A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET ns=B.ROOT-SERVERS.NET ns=C.ROOT-SERVERS.NET dom=A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET ip=184.108.40.206 dom=B.ROOT-SERVERS.NET ip=220.127.116.11 dom=C.ROOT-SERVERS.NET ip=18.104.22.168 The last three lines provide a mapping for the server names to their ip addresses. This is only a hint and will be superseded from whatever is learned from servers owning the domain. You can also serve a subtree of the domain name space from the local database. You indicate subtrees that you'ld like to serve by adding an soa= attribute to the root entry. For example, the Bell Labs CS research domain is: dom=cs.bell-labs.com soa= refresh=3600 ttl=3600 ns=plan9.bell-labs.com ns=ns1.cs.bell-labs.com ns=ns2.cs.bell-labs.com email@example.com mx=mail.research.bell-labs.com pref=20 mx=plan9.bell-labs.com pref=10 dnsslave=nslocum.cs.bell-labs.com dnsslave=vex.cs.bell-labs.com Here, the mb entry is the mail address of the person respon- sible for the domain (default postmaster). The mx entries list mail exchangers for the domain name and refresh and ttl define the area refresh interval and the minimum TTL for records in this domain. The dnsslave entries specify slave DNS servers that should be notified when the domain changes. The notification also requires the -n flag. You can also serve reverse lookups (returning the name that goes with an IP address) by adding an soa= attribute to the entry defining the root of the reverse space. For example, to provide reverse lookup for all addresses in starting with 135.104 you must have a record like: dom=104.135.in-addr.arpa soa= refresh=3600 ttl=3600 ns=plan9.bell-labs.com ns=ns1.cs.bell-labs.com ns=ns2.cs.bell-labs.com Notice the form of the reverse address, i.e., it's the bytes of the address range you are serving reversed and with .in-addr.arpa appended. This is a standard form for a domain name in an IPv4 PTR record. NDB(8) NDB(8) If such an entry exists in the database, reverse addresses will automatically be generated from any IP addresses in the database that are under this root. For example dom=ns1.cs.bell-labs.com ip=22.214.171.124 will automaticly create both forward and reverse entries for ns1.cs.bell-labs.com . Unlike other DNS servers, there's no way to generate inconsistent forward and reverse entries. Delegation of a further subtree to another set of name servers is indicated by an soa=delegated attribute. dom=bignose.cs.research.bell-labs.com soa=delegated ns=anna.cs.research.bell-labs.com ns=dj.cs.research.bell-labs.com Nameservers within the delegated domain (as in this example) must have their IP addresses listed elsewhere in ndb files. Wild-carded domain names can also be used. For example, to specify a mail forwarder for all Bell Labs research systems: dom=*.research.bell-labs.com mx=research.bell-labs.com `Cname' aliases may be established by adding a cname attribute giving the real domain name; the name attached to the dom attribute is the alias. `Cname' aliases are severely restricted; the aliases may have no other attributes than dom and are daily further restricted in their use by new RFCs. cname=anna.cs.research.bell-labs.com dom=www.cs.research.bell-labs.com Ndb/dnsquery can be used to query ndb/dns to see how it resolves requests. Ndb/dnsquery prompts for commands of the form domain-name request-type where request-type can be ip, mx, ns, cname, ptr.... In the case of the inverse query type, ptr, dnsquery will reverse the ip address and tack on the .in-addr.arpa for you. Ndb/dnsdebug is like ndb/dnsquery but bypasses the local server. It communicates via UDP with the domain name servers in the same way that the local resolver would and displays all packets received. The query can be specified on the command line or can be prompted for. The queries look like those of ndb/dnsquery with one addition. Ndb/dnsdebug can be directed to query a particular name NDB(8) NDB(8) server by the command @name-server. From that point on, all queries go to that name server rather than being resolved by dnsdebug. The @ command returns query resolution to dnsdebug. Finally, any command preceded by a @name-server sets the name server only for that command. Normally dnsdebug uses the /net interface and the database file /lib/ndb/local. The -x option directs dnsdebug to use the /net.alt interface and /lib/ndb/external file. The -r option is the same as for ndb/dns. Ndb/mkdb is used in concert with awk(1) scripts to convert uucp systems files and IP host files into database files. It is very specific to the situation at Murray Hill. When the database files change underfoot, ndb/cs and ndb/dns track them properly. Nonetheless, to keep the database searches efficient it is necessary to run ndb/mkhash when- ever the files are modified. It may be profitable to con- trol this by a frequent cron(8) job. Ndb/mkhosts generates a BSD style hosts, hosts.txt, and hosts.equiv files from an ndb data base file specified on the command line (default /lib/ndb/local). For local rea- sons the files are called hosts.1127, astro.txt, and hosts.equiv. Ndb/mobile overrides the IP address translation for $sysname when the IP in use is not the official one as found in the ndb database. It removes the override otherwise. The over- ride is made by including a line for the system in the file /lib/ndb/mobile/machine because this file is included in Plan B before other ones. The address is taken from the configuration of the first IP interface, unless specified as a parameter. Ndb/ccs is a cache for the ndb/cs program. The Plan B start script, brc(8) starts cs to serve clients at #s/cs_net and then starts ccs to behave as the connection server. All the replies seen are cached, even the ones that mean no-match. This is needed because when the root volume is lost, bns is still able to recover. However, to do so, it needs to trans- late addresses (and also factotum). Because all the neces- sary addresses and queries had to be seen while first mount- ing the volumes, caching them suffices. To flush the cache, write flush to /net/cs. Flags are like in the real cs program. The optional argument specifies where to reach that program. EXAMPLES % ndb/query sys helix NDB(8) NDB(8) sys=helix dom=helix.research.bell-labs.com bootf=/mips/9powerboot ip=126.96.36.199 ether=080069020427 proto=il % ndb/dnsquery > plan9.bell-labs.com ip plan9.bell-labs.com ip 188.8.131.52 > 184.108.40.206 ptr 220.127.116.11.in-addr.arpa ptr plan9.bell-labs.com 18.104.22.168.in-addr.arpa ptr ampl.com > FILES /lib/ndb/local first database file searched /lib/ndb/local.* hash files for /lib/ndb/local /srv/cs service file for ndb/cs /net/cs where /srv/cs gets mounted /srv/dns service file for ndb/dns /net/dns where /srv/dns gets mounted SOURCE /sys/src/cmd/ndb SEE ALSO ndb(2) ndb(6) BUGS Ndb databases are case-sensitive; ethernet addresses must be in lower-case hexadecimal.