man(1) Manual page archive

     2L(1)                                                       2L(1)

          2l, 6l, 8l, kl, vl, xl - loaders

          2l [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
          6l [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
          8l [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
          kl [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
          vl [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
          xl [ option ... ] [ file ... ]

          2l, 6l, 8l, kl, vl, and xl load the named files into
          MC68020, i960, i386, SPARC, MIPS, and ATT3210 executable
          files.  The files should be object files or libraries
          (archives of object files) for the appropriate architecture.
          Also, a name like -lext represents the library libext.a in
          /$objtype/lib, where objtype is one of 68020, 960, 386,
          sparc, mips, or 3210.  The libraries must have tables of
          contents (see ar(1)).

          In practice, -l options are rarely necessary as the header
          files for the libraries cause their archives to be included
          automatically in the load (see 2c(1)). For example, any pro-
          gram that includes header file libc.h causes the loader to
          search the C library /$objtype/lib/libc.a.  Also, the loader
          creates an undefined symbol _main (or _mainp if profiling is
          enabled) to force loading of the startup linkage from the C

          The order of search to resolve undefined symbols is to load
          all files and libraries mentioned explicitly on the command
          line, and then to resolve remaining symbols by searching in
          topological order libraries mentioned in header files
          included by files already loaded.  When scanning such
          libraries, the algorithm is to scan each library repeatedly
          until no new undefined symbols are picked up, then to start
          on the next library.  Thus if library A needs B which needs
          A again, it may be necessary to mention A explicitly so it
          will be read a second time.

          The loader options are:

          -l        (As a bare option.)  Suppress the default loading
                    of the startup linkage and libraries specified by
                    header files.

          -o out    Place output in file out. Default is O.out, where
                    O is the first letter of the loader name.

     2L(1)                                                       2L(1)

          -p        Insert profiling code into the executable output;
                    no special action is needed during compilation or

          -s        Strip the symbol tables from the output file.

          -a        Print the object code in assembly language, with

          -v        Print debugging output that annotates the activi-
                    ties of the load.

                    (Xl only) Place the function in the internal RAM
                    of the DSP3210.

          -M        (Kl only) Generate instructions rather than calls
                    to emulation routines for multiply and divide.

          -msize    (Xl only) Use size (default 0, maximum 8192) bytes
                    of internal RAM of the DSP3210 for functions and
                    small data items.

          -Esymbol  The entry point for the binary is symbol (default
                    _main; _mainp under -p).

          -Hn       Executable header is type n. The meaning of the
                    types is architecture-dependent; typically type 1
                    is Plan 9 boot format and type 2 is the regular
                    Plan 9 format, the default.  These are reversed on
                    the MIPS.  The Next boot format is 3.  Type 4 in
                    vl creates a MIPS executable for an SGI Unix sys-

          -Tt       The text segment starts at address t.

          -Dd       The data segment starts at address d.

          -Rr       The text segment is rounded to a multiple of r (if
                    r is nonzero).

          The numbers in the above options can begin with `0x' or `0'
          to change the default base from decimal to hexadecimal or
          octal.  The defaults for the values depend on the compiler
          and the header type.

          The loaded image has several symbols inserted by the loader:
          etext is the address of the end of the text segment; bdata
          is the address of the beginning of the data segment; edata
          is the address of the end of the data segment; and end is
          the address of the end of the bss segment, and of the pro-

     2L(1)                                                       2L(1)

          /$objtype/lib  for -llib arguments.

          /sys/src/cmd/2l etc.

          2c(1), 2a(1), alef(1), ar(1), nm(1), db(1), prof(1)

          Rob Pike, ``How to Use the Plan 9 C Compiler''