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     8½(4)                                                       8½(4)

          8½ - window system files

          8½ [ -i 'cmd' ] [ -s ] [ -f font ]

          The window system 8½ serves a variety of files for reading,
          writing, and controlling windows.  Some of them are virtual
          versions of system files for dealing with the display, key-
          board, and mouse; others control operations of the window
          system itself.  8½ posts its service in the /srv directory,
          using a name constructed from a catenation of the user ID
          and a process id; the environment variable $8½srv is set to
          this service name within processes running under the control
          of each invocation of 8½.

          A mount (see bind(1)) of that file causes 8½ to create a new
          window; the attach specifier in the mount gives the coordi-
          nates of the created window.  The syntax of the specifier is

               N pid minx miny maxx maxy

          where pid is the process id of a process in the note group
          (see fork(2)) to receive interrupt and hangup notes in that

          When a window is created either by the window command (see
          8½(1)) or by using the menu supplied by 8½, this server is
          mounted on /mnt/8½ and also /dev; the files mentioned here
          appear in both those directories.

          Some of these files supply virtual versions of services
          available from the underlying environment, in particular the
          character terminal files cons(3), and all the bit devices
          bit(3), each specific to the window.  Other files are unique
          to 8½.

               is a virtual version of the bitblt file within the cur-
               rent window; see bit(3), graphics(2). All operations
               are clipped to the current window.  The coordinate sys-
               tem is absolute; it refers to the real screen.

          cons is a virtual version of the standard terminal file
               cons(3). 8½ supplies extra editing features and a
               scroll bar (see 8½(1)).

               controls interpretation of keyboard input.  Writing
               strings on it sets these modes: rawon turns on raw

     8½(4)                                                       8½(4)

               mode; rawoff turns off raw mode; holdon turns on hold
               mode; holdoff turns off hold mode.  Closing the file
               makes the window revert to default state (raw off, hold

               initially contains a string with the process ID of the
               lead process in the window and the command being exe-
               cuted there.  It may be written and is used as a tag
               when the window is hidden.

               is a virtual version of the standard mouse file (see
               bit(3)). Opening it turns off scrolling, editing, and
               8½-supplied menus in the associated window.  The 0x80
               bit in the buttons byte of a returned record indicates
               that the window has been reshaped.  Reading this file
               blocks until the mouse moves or a button changes.
               Mouse movements or button changes are invisible when
               the mouse cursor is located outside the window.

               is a non-blocking version of mouse; it always returns
               the current state.  Its use is discouraged.

               returns the selected text in the designated window.  It
               may not be written.

               returns the string currently in the snarf buffer.  It
               may not be written.

               returns the unique and unchangeable ID for the window;
               it is a string of digits.

               is the virtual version of /dev/screen; see bit(3). It
               contains the depth, coordinates, and bitmap correspond-
               ing to the associated window.

               is a directory containing a subdirectory for each win-
               dow, named by the unique ID for that window.  Within
               each subdirectory are entries corresponding to several
               of the special files associated with that window:
               bitblt, cons, consctl, label, mouse, nbmouse, select,

          Create a window to be created in the upper left corner, and

     8½(4)                                                       8½(4)

          the word `hi' to be printed there.

               mount $8½srv /tmp N$pid' 0 0 128 64'
               echo hi > /tmp/cons

          Prints the text currently selected in window 123.

               cat /dev/windows/123/select

          8½(1), bit(3), cons(3), event(2), graphics(2).