PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) NAME plan9.ini - configuration file primarily for PCs SYNOPSIS none DESCRIPTION When booting Plan 9 on a PC, the bootstrap programs described in 9boot(8) first read, via TFTP or a FAT filesys- tem on the boot disk, a file containing configuration infor- mation. This file, /cfg/pxe/hex-digits (TFTP; see 9boot(8)) or plan9.ini (FAT), looks like a shell script containing lines of the form name=value each of which defines a kernel or device parameter. Blank lines and Carriage Returns (\r) are ignored. # com- ments are ignored, but are only recognised if `#' appears at the start of a line. For devices, the generic format of value is type=TYPE [port=N] [irq=N] [mem=N] [size=N] [dma=N] [ea=N] specifying the controller type, the base I/O port of the interface, its interrupt level, the physical starting address of any mapped memory, the length in bytes of that memory, the DMA channel, and for Ethernets an override of the physical network address. Not all elements are relevant to all devices; the relevant values and their defaults are defined below in the description of each device. The file is used by the bootstrap programs and the kernel to configure the hardware available, although nowadays the ker- nel can usually detect the attached hardware by itself. The information it contains is also passed to the boot process, and subsequently other programs, as environment variables (see boot(8)). However, values whose names begin with an asterisk `*' are used by the kernel and are stored in `#ec' rather than `#e'. The following sections describe how variables are used. ETHERNET etherX=value This defines an Ethernet interface. X, a unique monotoni- cally increasing number beginning at 0, identifies an Ether- net card to be probed at system boot. Probing stops when a PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) card is found or there is no line for etherX+1. After prob- ing as directed by the etherX lines, any remaining Ethernet cards that can be automatically detected are added. Almost all cards can be automatically detected. For debugging pur- poses, automatic probing can be disabled by specifying the line `*noetherprobe='. Many cards are software configurable and do not require all options. Unspecified options default to the factory defaults. Known TYPEs are igbe The Intel 8254X Gigabit Ethernet controllers, as found on the Intel PRO/1000 adapters for copper (not fiber). Completely configurable. igbepcie The Intel 8256, 8257, and 82573[ev] Gigabit Ethernet PCI-Express controllers. Completely con- figurable. rtl8169 The Realtek 8169 Gigabit Ethernet controller. Com- pletely configurable. ga620 Netgear GA620 and GA620T Gigabit Ethernet cards, and other cards using the Alteon Acenic chip such as the Alteon Acenic fiber and copper cards, the DEC DEGPA-SA and the SGI Acenic. Completely config- urable. dp83820 National Semiconductor DP83820-based Gigabit Ether- net adapters, notably the D-Link DGE-500T. Com- pletely configurable. vgbe The VIA Velocity Gigabit Ethernet controller. Known to drive the VIA8237 (ABIT AV8), but at 100Mb/s full-duplex only. m10g The Myricom 10-Gigabit Ethernet 10G-PCIE-8A con- troller. Completely configurable. i82598 The Intel 8259 10-Gigabit Ethernet PCI-Express controllers. Completely configurable. i82557 Cards using the Intel 8255 Fast Ethernet PCI Bus LAN Controller such as the Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B. Completely configurable, no options need be given. If you need to force the media, specify one of the options (no value) 10BASE-T, 10BASE-2, 10BASE-5, 100BASE-TX, 10BASE-TFD, 100BASE-TXFD, PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) 100BASE-T4, 100BASE-FX, or 100BASE-FXFD. Completely configurable. 2114x Cards using the Digital Equipment (now Intel) 2114x PCI Fast Ethernet Adapter Controller, for example the Netgear FA310. Completely configurable, no options need be given. Media can be specified the same was as for the i82557. Some cards using the PNIC and PNIC2 near-clone chips may also work. 83815 National Semiconductor DP83815-based adapters, notably the Netgear FA311, Netgear FA312, and vari- ous SiS built-in controllers such as the SiS900. On the SiS controllers, the Ethernet address is not detected properly; specify it with an ea= attribute. Completely configurable. rtl8139 The Realtek 8139 Fast Ethernet controller. Com- pletely configurable. vt6102 The VIA VT6102 Fast Ethernet Controller (Rhine II). vt6105m The VIA VT6105M Fast Ethernet Controller (Rhine III). smc91cxx SMC 91cXX chip-based PCMCIA adapters, notably the SMC EtherEZ card. elnk3 The 3COM Etherlink III series of cards including the 5x9, 59x, and 905 and 905B. Completely config- urable, no options need be given. The media may be specified by setting media= to the value 10BaseT, 10Base2, 100BaseTX, 100BaseFX, aui, and mii. If you need to force full duplex, because for example the Ethernet switch does not negotiate correctly, just name the word (no value) fullduplex or 100BASE-TXFD. Similarly, to force 100Mbit operation, specify force100. Port 0x110 is used for the little ISA configuration dance. 3c589 The 3COM 3C589 series PCMCIA cards, including the 3C562 and the 589E. There is no support for the modem on the 3C562. Completely configurable, no options need be given. Defaults are port=0x240 irq=10 The media may be specified as media=10BaseT or media=10Base2. ec2t The Linksys Combo PCMCIA EthernetCard (EC2T), Ether- Fast 10/100 PCMCIA cards (PCMPC100) and integrated controllers (PCM100), the Netgear FA410TX 10/100 PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) PCMCIA card and the Accton EtherPair-PCMCIA (EN2216). Completely configurable, no options need be given. Defaults are port=0x300 irq=9 These cards are NE2000 clones. Other NE2000 compat- ible PCMCIA cards may be tried with the option id=string where string is a unique identifier string contained in the attribute memory of the card (see pcmcia(8)); unlike most options in plan9.ini, this string is case-sensitive. The option dummyrr= can be used to turn off (0) or on (1) a dummy remote read in the driver in such cases, depending on how NE2000 com- patible they are. ne2000 Not software configurable iff ISA; PCI clones or supersets are software configurable; includes the Realtek 8029 clone used by Parallels. 16-bit card. Defaults are port=0x300 irq=2 mem=0x04000 size=0x4000 The option (no value) nodummyrr is needed on some (near) clones to turn off a dummy remote read in the driver. amd79c970 The AMD PCnet PCI Ethernet Adapter (AM79C970). (This is the Ethernet adapter used by VMware.) Com- pletely configurable, no options need be given. wd8003 Includes WD8013 and SMC Elite and Elite Ultra cards. There are varying degrees of software configurabil- ity. Cards may be in either 8-bit or 16-bit slots. Defaults are port=0x280 irq=3 mem=0xD0000 size=0x2000 BUG: On many machines only the 16 bit card works. sink A /dev/null for Ethernet packets - the interface discards sent packets and never receives any. This is used to provide a test bed for some experimental Ethernet bridging software. wavelan Lucent Wavelan (Orinoco) IEEE 802.11b and compatible PCMCIA cards. Compatible cards include the Dell TrueMobile 1150 and the Linksys Instant Wireless Network PC Card. Port and IRQ defaults are 0x180 and 3 respectively. These cards take a number of unique options to aid in identifying the card correctly on the 802.11b network. The network may be ad hoc or managed (i.e. use an access point): mode=[adhoc, managed] PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) and defaults to managed. The 802.11b network to attach to (managed mode) or identify as (ad hoc mode), is specified by essid=string and defaults to a null string. The card station name is given by station=string and defaults to Plan 9 STA. The channel to use is given by channel=number where number lies in the range 1 to 16 inclusive; the channel is normally negotiated automatically. If the card is capable of encryption, the following options may be used: crypt=[off, on] and defaults to on. keyN=string sets the encryption key N (where N is in the range 1 to 4 inclusive) to string; this will also set the transmit key to N (see below). There are two for- mats for string which depend on the length of the string. If it is exactly 5 or 13 characters long it is assumed to be an alphanumeric key; if it is exactly 10 or 26 characters long the key is assumed to be in hex format (without a leading 0x). The lengths are checked, as is the format of a hex key. txkey=number sets the transmit key to use to be number in the range 1 to 4 inclusive. If it is desired to exclude or include unencrypted packets clear=[off, on] configures reception and defaults to inclusion. The defaults are intended to match the common case of a managed network with encryption and a typical entry would only require, for example essid=left-armpit key1=afish key2=calledraawaru if the port and IRQ defaults are used. These options may be set after boot by writing to the device's ctl file using a space as the separator between option and value, e.g. echo 'key2 1d8f65c9a52d83c8e4b43f94af' >/net/ether0/0/ctl Card-specific power management may be enabled/disabled by pm=[on, off] wavelanpci PCI Ethernet adapters that use the same Wavelan pro- gramming interface. Currently the only tested cards are those based on the Intersil Prism 2.5 chipset. PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) DISKS, TAPES (S)ATA controllers are autodetected. usbX=type=uhci usbX=type=ohci usbX=type=ehci This specifies the settings for a USB UHCI, OHCI or EHCI controller. Like the Ethernet controllers, USB controllers are autodetected after scanning for the ones listed in plan9.ini. Thus, most systems will not need a usbX line. Also like the Ethernet controllers, USB autoprobing can be disabled by specifying the line *nousbprobe=. scsiX=value This defines a SCSI interface which cannot be automatically detected by the kernel. Known TYPEs are aha1542 Adaptec 154x series of controllers (and clones). Almost completely configurable, only the port=0x300 option need be given. NCR/Symbios/LSI-Logic 53c8xx-based adapters and Mylex Multi- Master (Buslogic BT-*) adapters are automatically detected and need no entries. By default, the NCR 53c8xx driver searches for up to 32 con- trollers. This can be changed by setting the variable *maxsd53c8xx. By default the Mylex driver resets SCSI cards by using both the hard reset and SCSI bus reset flags in the driver inter- face. If a variable *noscsireset is defined, the SCSI bus reset flag is omitted. aoeif=list This specifies a space-separated list of Ethernet interfaces to be bound at boot to the ATA-over-Ethernet driver, aoe(3). For example, `aoeif=ether0 ether1'. Only interfaces on this list will initially be accessible via AoE. aoedev=e!#æ/aoe/shelf.slot This specifies an ATA-over-Ethernet device accessible via the interfaces named in aoeif on AoE shelf and slot to use as a root device for bootstrapping. AUDIO audioX=value This defines a pre-USB sound interface. PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) Known types are sb16 Sound Blaster 16. ess1688 A Sound Blaster clone. The DMA channel may be any of 5, 6, or 7. The defaults are port=0x220 irq=7 dma=5 Uarts Plan 9 automatically configures COM1 and COM2, if found, as eia0 (port 0x3F8, IRQ4) and eia1 (port 0x2F8, IRQ3) respec- tively. These devices can be disabled by adding a line: eiaX=disabled This is typically done in order to reuse the IRQ for another device. Plan 9 used to support various serial concentrators, includ- ing the TTC 8 serial line card and various models in the Star Gate Avanstar series of intelligent serial boards. These are no longer supported; the much simpler Perle PCI- Fast4, PCI-Fast8, and PCI-Fast16 controllers have taken their places. These latter cards are automatically detected and need no configuration lines. The line serial=type=com can be used to specify settings for a PCMCIA modem. mouseport=value This specifies where the mouse is attached. Value can be ps2 the PS2 mouse/keyboard port. The BIOS setup procedure should be used to configure the machine appropriately. ps2intellimouse an Intellimouse on the PS2 port. 0 for COM1 1 for COM2 modemport=value Picks the UART line to call out on. This is used when con- necting to a file server over an async line. Value is the number of the port. console=value params This is used to specify the console device. The default PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) value is cga; a number 0 or 1 specifies COM1 or COM2 respec- tively. A serial console is initially configured with the uart(3) configuration string b9600 l8 pn s1, specifying 9600 baud, 8 bit bytes, no parity, and one stop bit. If params is given, it will be used to further configure the uart. Notice that there is no = sign in the params syntax. For example, console=0 b19200 po would use COM1 at 19,200 baud with odd parity. PC CARD pccard0=disabled Disable probing for and automatic configuration of PC card controllers. pcmciaX=type=XXX irq=irq If the default IRQ for the PCMCIA is correct, this entry can be omitted. The value of type is ignored. pcmcia0=disabled Disable probing for and automatic configuration of PCMCIA controllers. NVRAM nvram=file nvrlen=length nvroff=offset This is used to specify an nvram device and optionally the length of the ram and read/write offset to use. These val- ues are consulted by readnvram (see authsrv(2)). The most common use of the nvram is to hold a secstore(1) password for use by factotum(4). nvr=value This is used by the WORM file server kernel to locate a file holding information to configure the file system. The file cannot live on a SCSI disk. The default is fd!0!plan9.nvr (sic), unless bootfile is set, in which case it is plan9.nvr on the same disk as bootfile. The syntax is either fd!unit!name or hd!unit!name where unit is the numeric unit id. This variant syntax is a vestige of the file server kernel's origins. BOOTING bootfile=value This is used to direct the actions of the bootstrap programs by naming the device and file from which to load the kernel. rootdir=dir rootspec=spec PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) These are used by the bootstrap programs to identify the directory dir to make the root directory for the kernel, and the file system specifier spec (see mount in bind(2)) on which it can be found. These are usually used to test vari- ant file systems for distributions, etc. bootargs=args The value of this variable is passed to boot(8) by the ker- nel as the name of the root file system. It is typically used to specify additional arguments to pass to kfs(4) or ipconfig(8). For example, if the system is to run from a local kfs(4) partition, the definition might read bootargs=local!#S/sdC0/fs. See boot(8) for more. nobootprompt=root Suppress the `root from' prompt and use root as the answer instead. user=user Suppress the `user' prompt and use user as the answer instead. debugfactotum= Causes boot(8) to start factotum with the -p option, so that it can be debugged. factotumopts=options Causes boot(8) to start factotum with the given options, which must be a single word (i.e., contain no whitespace). venti=value When booting from a local fossil server backed by a local or remote venti server, this variable specifies how to estab- lish the connection to the venti server. See boot(8) for more. cfs=partition This names the file holding the disk partition for the cache file system, cfs(4). Extending the bootargs example, one would write cfs=#S/sdC0/cache. bootdisk=value This deprecated variable was used to specify the disk used by the cache file system and other disk-resident services. It is superseded by bootargs and cfs. partition=value This defines the partition table 9load(8) will examine to find disk partitioning information. By default, a partition table in a Plan 9 partition is consulted; if no such table is found, an old-Plan 9 partition table on the next-to-last or last sector of the disk is consulted. A value of new PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) consults only the first table, old only the second. readparts= Causes boot(8) to look for MBR and Plan 9 partition tables on all sd(3) disks, even before factotum is started, so NVRAM, for example, may be found. On PCs, 9load (but not 9boot) normally does this and passes the partitions found in #ec/sdCnpart. fs=a.b.c.d auth=a.b.c.d These specify the IP address of the file and authentication server to use when mounting a network-provided root file system. They are used only if the addresses cannot be determined via DHCP. PROCESSOR *norealmode= The PC kernel switches the processor to 16-bit real mode to run BIOS interrupts, for example to find the memory map or to enable VESA. This variable disables such switches. *noe820scan= When available, the PC kernel uses the BIOS E820 memory map to size memory. This variable disables the scan. *maxmem=address This defines the maximum physical address that the system will scan when sizing memory. By default the PC operating system will scan up to 3.75 gigabytes (0xF0000000, the base of kernel virtual address space), but setting *maxmem will limit the scan. *maxmem must be less than 3.75 gigabytes. This variable is not consulted if using the E820 memory map. *kernelpercent=percent This defines the percentage of available memory reserved for the kernel allocation pool. The remainder is left for user processes. The default percent is 30 on CPU servers, 60 on terminals with less than 16MB of memory, and 40 on terminals with memories of 16MB or more. Terminals use more kernel memory because draw(3) maintains its graphic images in ker- nel memory. This deprecated option is rarely necessary in newer kernels. *nomce=value If machine check exceptions are supported by the processor, then they are enabled by default. Setting this variable to 1 causes them to be disabled even when available. *nomp= A multiprocessor machine will enable all processors by default. Setting *nomp restricts the kernel to starting PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) only one processor and using the traditional interrupt con- troller. *ncpu=cpus Setting *ncpu restricts the kernel to starting at most cpus processors. *pcimaxbno=bno Limits the maximum bus number probed on a PCI bus (default 7). For example, a bno of 1 should suffice on a 'standard' motherboard with an AGP slot. This, and *pcimaxdno below are rarely used and only on troublesome or suspect hardware. *pcimaxdno=dno Limits the maximum device number probed on a PCI bus (default 31). *nopcirouting= Disable pci routing during boot. May solve interrupt rout- ing problems on certain machines. *nodumpstack= Disable printing a stack dump on panic. Useful if there is only a limited cga screen available, otherwise the textual information about the panic may scroll off. ioexclude=range Specifies a list of ranges of I/O ports to exclude from use by drivers. Ranges are inclusive on both ends and separated by commas. For example: ioexclude=0x330-0x337,0x430-0x43F umbexclude=range Specifies a list of ranges of UMB to exclude from use by drivers. Ranges are inclusive on both ends and separated by commas. For example: umbexclude=0xD1800-0xD3FFF apm0= This enables the ``advanced power management'' interface as described in apm(3) and apm(8). The main feature of the interface is the ability to watch battery life (see stats(8)). It is not on by default because it causes prob- lems on some laptops. VIDEO monitor=monitor vgasize=xxyxd These are used not by the kernel but by termrc (see cpurc(8)) when starting vga(8). *dpms=value PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) This is used to specify the screen blanking behavior of the MGA4xx video driver. Values are standby, suspend, and off. The first two specify differing levels of power saving; the third turns the monitor off completely. Multiple Configurations A plan9.ini file may contain multiple configurations, each within a block beginning with a line [tag] A special block with the tag menu gives a list of blocks from which the user may interactively select the contents of plan9.ini. There may also be multiple blocks with the tag common which will be included in all selections; if any lines appear in plan9.ini before the first block, they are treated as a common block. Within the menu block the following configuration lines are allowed: menuitem=tag[, description] The block identified by tag will appear in the presented menu. The menu entry will consist of the tag unless the optional description is given. menudefault=tag[, timeout] Identifies a default block to be given in the menu selection prompt. If the optional timeout is given (in seconds), the default block will be selected if there is no user input within the timeout period. menuconsole=value[, baud] Selects a serial console upon which to present the menu as no console or baud configuration information will have been processed yet (the plan9.ini contents are still to be decided...). In response to the menu being printed, the user is prompted to select a menu item from the list. If the numeric response is followed by a p, the selected configuration is printed and the menu presented again. The line menuitem=tag is prefixed to the selected configuration as an aid to user-level initialization scripts. EXAMPLES A representative plan9.ini: % cat /n/c:/plan9.ini ether0=type=3C509 mouseport=ps2 PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) modemport=1 serial0=type=generic port=0x3E8 irq=5 monitor=445x vgasize=1600x1200x8 % Minimum CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT files to use COM2 as a console: % cat /n/c:/config.sys SHELL=COMMAND.COM COM2 /P % cat /n/c:/autoexec.bat @ECHO OFF PROMPT $p$g PATH C:\DOS;C:\BIN mode com2:96,n,8,1,p SET TEMP=C:\TMP % Simple plan9.ini with multiple configurations: [menu] menuitem=vga, Plan 9 with VGA menuitem=novga, Plan 9 no automatic VGA menudefault=vga [vga] monitor=multisync135 vgasize=1024x768x8 [novga] [common] ether0=type=i82557 audio0=type=sb16 port=0x220 irq=5 dma=1 With this, the following menu will be presented on boot: Plan 9 Startup Menu: ==================== 1. Plan 9 with VGA 2. Plan 9 no automatic VGA Selection[default==1]: Selecting item 1 generates the following plan9.ini to be used by the remainder of the bootstrap process: menuitem=vga monitor=multisync135 vgasize=1024x768x8 ether0=type=i82557 audio0=type=sb16 port=0x220 irq=5 dma=1 PLAN9.INI(8) PLAN9.INI(8) and selecting item 2: menuitem=novga ether0=type=i82557 audio0=type=sb16 port=0x220 irq=5 dma=1 SEE ALSO 9boot(8), booting(8), boot(8) BUGS Being able to set the console device to other than a display is marginally useful on file servers; MS-DOS and the pro- grams which run under it are so tightly bound to the display that it is necessary to have a display if any setup or reconfiguration programs need to be run. Also, the delay before any messages appear at boot time is disconcerting, as any error messages from the BIOS are lost. This idea is at best an interesting experiment that needs another iteration.