SPIN(1) SPIN(1) NAME spin - verification tool for models of concurrent systems SYNOPSIS spin [ options ] file spin -V DESCRIPTION Spin is a tool for analyzing the logical consistency of asynchronous systems, specifically distributed software, multi-threaded systems, and communication protocols. A model of the system is specified in a guarded command lan- guage called Promela (process meta language). This modeling language supports dynamic creation of processes, nondeter- ministic case selection, loops, gotos, local and global variables. It also allows for a concise specification of logical correctness requirements, including, but not restricted to requirements expressed in linear temporal logic. Given a Promela model stored in file, spin can perform interactive, guided, or random simulations of the system's execution. It can also generate a C program that performs an exhaustive verification of the correctness requirements for the system. The main options supported are as follows. (You can always get a full list of current options with the command "spin --"). -a Generate a verifier (a model checker) for the speci- fication. The output is written into a set of C files named pan.[cbhmt], that can be compiled (pcc pan.c) to produce an executable verifier. The online spin manuals contain the details on compilation and use of the verifiers. -b Do not execute printf statements in a simulation run. -c Produce an ASCII approximation of a message sequence chart for a random or guided (when combined with -t) simulation run. See also option -M. -Dxxx Pass -Dxxx to the preprocessor (see also -E and -I). -d Produce symbol table information for the model speci- fied in file. For each Promela object this informa- tion includes the type, name and number of elements (if declared as an array), the initial value (if a data object) or size (if a message channel), the scope (global or local), and whether the object is SPIN(1) SPIN(1) declared as a variable or as a parameter. For mes- sage channels, the data types of the message fields are listed. For structure variables, the third field defines the name of the structure declaration that contains the variable. -Exxx Pass xxx to the preprocessor (see also -D and -I). -e If the specification contains multiple never claims, or ltl properties, compute the synchronous product of all claims and write the result to the standard out- put. -f ltl Translate the LTL formula ltl into a never claim. This option reads a formula in LTL syntax from the second argument and translates it into Promela syntax (a never claim, which is Promela's equivalent of a Büchi Automaton). The LTL operators are written:  (always), <> (eventually), and U (strong until). There is no X (next) operator, to secure compatibil- ity with the partial order reduction rules that are applied during the verification process. If the for- mula contains spaces, it should be quoted to form a single argument to the spin command. This option has largely been replaced with the sup- port for inline specification of ltl formula, in Spin version 6.0. -F file Translate the LTL formula stored in file into a never claim. This behaves identically to option -f but will read the formula from the file instead of from the command line. The file should contain the formula as the first line. Any text that follows this first line is ignored, so it can be used to store comments or anno- tation on the formula. (On some systems the quoting conventions of the shell complicate the use of option -f. Option -F is meant to solve those problems.) -g In combination with option -p, print all global vari- able updates in a simulation run. -h At the end of a simulation run, print the value of the seed that was used for the random number genera- tor. By specifying the same seed with the -n option, the exact run can be repeated later. -I Show the result of inlining and preprocessing. -i Perform an interactive simulation, prompting the user at every execution step that requires a SPIN(1) SPIN(1) nondeterministic choice to be made. The simulation proceeds without user intervention when execution is deterministic. -jN Skip printing for the first N steps in a simulation run. -J Reverse the evaluation order for nested unless state- ments, e.g., to match the way in which Java handles exceptions. -k file Use the file name file as the trail-file, see also -t. -l In combination with option -p, include all local variable updates in the output of a simulation run. -M Produce a message sequence chart in Postscript form for a random simulation or a guided simulation (when combined with -t), for the model in file, and write the result into file.ps. See also option -c. -m Changes the semantics of send events. Ordinarily, a send action will be (blocked) if the target message buffer is full. With this option a message sent to a full buffer is lost. -nN Set the seed for a random simulation to the integer value N. There is no space between the -n and the integer N. -N file Use the never claim stored in file to generate the verified (see -a). -O Use the original scope rules from pre-Spin version 6. -o Turn off data-flow optimization ( -o1). Do not hide write-only variables ( -o2 ) during verification. Turn off statement merging ( -o3 ) during verifica- tion. Turn on rendezvous optimization ( -o4 ) during verification. Turn on case caching ( -o5 ) to reduce the size of pan.m, but losing accuracy in reachabil- ity reports. -O Use the scope rules pre-version 6.0. In this case there are only two possible levels of scope for all data declarations: global, or proctype local. In version 6.0 and later there is a third level of scope: inlines or blocks. SPIN(1) SPIN(1) -Pxxx Use the command xxx for preprocessing instead of the standard C preprocessor. -p Include all statement executions in the output of simulation runs. -qN Suppress the output generated for channel N during simulation runs. -r Show all message-receive events, giving the name and number of the receiving process and the corresponding the source line number. For each message parameter, show the message type and the message channel number and name. -s Include all send operations in the output of simula- tion runs. -T Do not automatically indent the printf output of pro- cess i with i tabs. -t[N] Perform a guided simulation, following the [Nth] error trail that was produces by an earlier verifica- tion run, see the online manuals for the details on verification. By default the error trail is looked for in a file with the same basename as the model, and with extension .trail. See also -k. -v Verbose mode, add some more detail, and generate more hints and warnings about the model. -V Prints the spin version number and exit. With only a filename as an argument and no option flags, spin performs a random simulation of the model specified in the file. This normally does not generate output, except what is generated explicitly by the user within the model with printf statements, and some details about the final state that is reached after the simulation completes. The group of options -bgilmprstv is used to set the desired level of information that the user wants about a random, guided, or interactive simulation run. Every line of output normally contains a reference to the source line in the specification that generated it. If option -i is included, the simulation i interactive, or if option -t or -kfile is added, the simulation is guided. SOURCE /sys/src/cmd/spin SEE ALSO http://spinroot.com/spin/Man/ SPIN(1) SPIN(1) G.J. Holzmann, The Spin Model Checker (Primer and Reference Manual), .}f Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 2004. , `The model checker Spin,' IEEE Trans. on SE, Vol, 23, No. 5, May 1997. , `Design and validation of protocols: a tutorial,' Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, Vol. 25, No. 9, 1993, pp. 981-1017. , Design and Validation of Computer Protocols, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1991.