TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

     NAME
          text - Create and manipulate text widgets

     SYNOPSIS
          text pathName ?options?

     STANDARD OPTIONS
          -background  -pady              -takefocus
          -borderwidth -relief            -xscrollcommand
          -font        -selectbackground  -yscrollcommand
          -foreground  -selectborderwidth
          -padx        -selectforeground

     WIDGET-SPECIFIC OPTIONS
          -height dist
               Specifies the desired height for the window.

          -spacing1 dist
               Requests additional space above each text line in the
               widget, using any of the standard forms for screen dis-
               tances.  If a line wraps, this option only applies to
               the first line on the display.  This option may be
               overriden with -spacing1 options in tags.

          -spacing2 dist
               For lines that wrap (so that they cover more than one
               line on the display) this option specifies additional
               space to provide between the display lines that repre-
               sent a single line of text.  The value may have any of
               the standard forms for screen distances.  This option
               may be overriden with -spacing2 options in tags.

          -spacing3 dist
               Requests additional space below each text line in the
               widget, using any of the standard forms for screen dis-
               tances.  If a line wraps, this option only applies to
               the last line on the display.  This option may be over-
               riden with -spacing3 options in tags.

          -state state
               Specifies one of two states for the text:  normal or
               disabled.  If the text is disabled then characters may
               not be inserted or deleted and no insertion cursor will
               be displayed, even if the input focus is in the widget.

          -tabs dist
               Specifies a set of tab stops for the window.  The
               option's value consists of a list of dist values giving
               the positions of the tab stops.  Each dist may option-
               ally be followed in the next list element by one of the

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

               keywords left, right, center, or numeric, which speci-
               fies how to justify text relative to the tab stop.
               Left is the default; it causes the text following the
               tab character to be positioned with its left edge at
               the tab position.  Right means that the right edge of
               the text following the tab character is positioned at
               the tab position, and center means that the text is
               centered at the tab position.  Numeric means that the
               decimal point in the text is positioned at the tab
               position;  if there is no decimal point then the least
               significant digit of the number is positioned just to
               the left of the tab position;  if there is no number in
               the text then the text is right-justified at the tab
               position.  For example, -tabs {2c left 4c 6c center}
               creates three tab stops at two-centimeter intervals;
               the first two use left justification and the third uses
               center justification.  If the list of tab stops does
               not have enough elements to cover all of the tabs in a
               text line, then Tk extrapolates new tab stops using the
               spacing and alignment from the last tab stop in the
               list.  The value of the tabs option may be overridden
               by -tabs options in tags.  If no -tabs option is speci-
               fied, or if it is specified as an empty list, then Tk
               uses default tabs spaced every eight (average size)
               characters.

          -width dist
               Specifies the desired width for the window.

          -wrap val
               Specifies how to handle lines in the text that are too
               long to be displayed in a single line of the text's
               window.  The value must be none or char or word.  A
               wrap mode of none means that each line of text appears
               as exactly one line on the screen;  extra characters
               that don't fit on the screen are not displayed.  In the
               other modes each line of text will be broken up into
               several screen lines if necessary to keep all the char-
               acters visible.  In char mode a screen line break may
               occur after any character; in word mode a line break
               will only be made at word boundaries.

     DESCRIPTION
          The text command creates a new window (given by the pathName
          argument) and makes it into a text widget.  Additional
          options, described above, may be specified on the command
          line to configure aspects of the text such as its default
          background colour and relief.  The text command returns the
          path name of the new window.

          A text widget displays one or more lines of text and allows

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

          that text to be edited.  Text widgets support three differ-
          ent kinds of annotations on the text, called tags, marks,
          and embedded windows.  Tags allow different portions of the
          text to be displayed with different fonts and colours.  In
          addition, Tk commands can be associated with tags so that
          scripts are invoked when particular actions such as keys-
          trokes and mouse button presses occur in particular ranges
          of the text.  See TAGS below for more details.

          The second form of annotation consists of marks, which are
          floating markers in the text.  Marks are used to keep track
          of various interesting positions in the text as it is
          edited.  See MARKS below for more details.

          The third form of annotation allows arbitrary windows to be
          embedded in a text widget.  See EMBEDDED WINDOWS below for
          more details.

     INDICES
          Many of the widget commands for texts take one or more
          indices as arguments.  An index is a string used to indicate
          a particular place within a text, such as a place to insert
          characters or one endpoint of a range of characters to
          delete.  Indices have the syntax
               base modifier modifier modifier ...
          Where base gives a starting point and the modifiers adjust
          the index from the starting point (e.g. move forward or
          backward one character).  Every index must contain a base,
          but the modifiers are optional.

          The base for an index must have one of the following forms:

          line.char   Indicates char'th character on line line.  Lines
                      are numbered from 1 for consistency with other
                      UNIX programs that use this numbering scheme.
                      Within a line, characters are numbered from 0.
                      If char is end then it refers to the newline
                      character that ends the line.

          @x,y        Indicates the character that covers the pixel
                      whose x and y coordinates within the text's win-
                      dow are x and y.

          end         Indicates the end of the text (the character
                      just after the last newline).

          mark        Indicates the character just after the mark
                      whose name is mark.

          tag.first   Indicates the first character in the text that
                      has been tagged with tag.  This form generates

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

                      an error if no characters are currently tagged
                      with tag.

          tag.last    Indicates the character just after the last one
                      in the text that has been tagged with tag.  This
                      form generates an error if no characters are
                      currently tagged with tag.

          pathName    Indicates the position of the embedded window
                      whose name is pathName.  This form generates an
                      error if there is no embedded window by the
                      given name.

          If modifiers follow the base index, each one of them must
          have one of the forms listed below.

          + count chars
               Adjust the index forward by count characters, moving to
               later lines in the text if necessary.  If there are
               fewer than count characters in the text after the cur-
               rent index, then set the index to the last character in
               the text.  Spaces on either side of count are optional.

          - count chars
               Adjust the index backward by count characters, moving
               to earlier lines in the text if necessary.  If there
               are fewer than count characters in the text before the
               current index, then set the index to the first charac-
               ter in the text.  Spaces on either side of count are
               optional.

          + count lines
               Adjust the index forward by count lines, retaining the
               same character position within the line.  If there are
               fewer than count lines after the line containing the
               current index, then set the index to refer to the same
               character position on the last line of the text.  Then,
               if the line is not long enough to contain a character
               at the indicated character position, adjust the charac-
               ter position to refer to the last character of the line
               (the newline).  Spaces on either side of count are
               optional.

          - count lines
               Adjust the index backward by count lines, retaining the
               same character position within the line.  If there are
               fewer than count lines before the line containing the
               current index, then set the index to refer to the same
               character position on the first line of the text.
               Then, if the line is not long enough to contain a char-
               acter at the indicated character position, adjust the
               character position to refer to the last character of

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

               the line (the newline).  Spaces on either side of count
               are optional.

          linestart
               Adjust the index to refer to the first character on the
               line.

          lineend
               Adjust the index to refer to the last character on the
               line (the newline).

          wordstart
               Adjust the index to refer to the first character of the
               word containing the current index.  A word consists of
               any number of adjacent characters that are letters,
               digits, or underscores, or a single character that is
               not one of these.

          wordend
               Adjust the index to refer to the character just after
               the last one of the word containing the current index.
               If the current index refers to the last character of
               the text then it is not modified.

          If more than one modifier is present then they are applied
          in left-to-right order.  For example, the index ``end - 1
          chars'' refers to the next-to-last character in the text and
          the index ``insert wordstart - 1 c'' refers to the character
          just before the first one in the word containing the inser-
          tion cursor.

     TAGS
          The first form of annotation in text widgets is a tag.  A
          tag is a textual string that is associated with some of the
          characters in a text.  Tags may contain arbitrary charac-
          ters, but it is probably best to avoid using the the charac-
          ters `` '' (space), +, or -: these characters have special
          meaning in indices, so tags containing them can't be used as
          indices. The tag name may not begin with a digit.  There may
          be any number of tags associated with characters in a text.
          Each tag may refer to a single character, a range of charac-
          ters, or several ranges of characters.  An individual char-
          acter may have any number of tags associated with it.

          A priority order is defined among tags, and this order is
          used in implementing some of the tag-related functions
          described below.  When a tag is defined (by associating it
          with characters or setting its display options or binding
          commands to it), it is given a priority higher than any
          existing tag.  The priority order of tags may be redefined
          using the ``pathName tag raise'' and ``pathName tag lower''

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

          widget commands.

          Tags serve three purposes in text widgets.  First, they con-
          trol the way information is displayed on the screen.  By
          default, characters are displayed as determined by the back-
          ground, font, and foreground options for the text widget.
          However, display options may be associated with individual
          tags using the ``pathName tag configure'' widget command.
          If a character has been tagged, then the display options
          associated with the tag override the default display style.
          The following options are currently supported for tags:

          -background colour
               Color specifies the background colour to use for char-
               acters associated with the tag.

          -borderwidth dist
               Dist specifies the width of a 3-D border to draw around
               the background.  This option is used in conjunction
               with the -relief option to give a 3-D appearance to the
               background for characters; it is ignored unless the
               -background option has been set for the tag.

          -font font
               Font is the name of a font to use for drawing charac-
               ters.

          -foreground colour
               Color specifies the colour to use when drawing text and
               other foreground information such as underlines.

          -justify justify
               If the first character of a display line has a tag for
               which this option has been specified, then justify
               determines how to justify the line.  It must be one of
               left, right, or center.  If a line wraps, then the jus-
               tification for each line on the display is determined
               by the first character of that display line.

          -lmargin1 dist
               If the first character of a text line has a tag for
               which this option has been specified, then dist speci-
               fies how much the line should be indented from the left
               edge of the window.  Dist may have any of the standard
               forms for screen distances.  If a line of text wraps,
               this option only applies to the first line on the dis-
               play;  the -lmargin2 option controls the indentation
               for subsequent lines.

          -lmargin2 dist
               If the first character of a display line has a tag for
               which this option has been specified, and if the

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

               display line is not the first for its text line (i.e.,
               the text line has wrapped), then dist specifies how
               much the line should be indented from the left edge of
               the window.  Dist may have any of the standard forms
               for screen distances.  This option is only used when
               wrapping is enabled, and it only applies to the second
               and later display lines for a text line.

          -offset dist
               Dist specifies an amount by which the text's baseline
               should be offset vertically from the baseline of the
               overall line, in pixels.  For example, a positive off-
               set can be used for superscripts and a negative offset
               can be used for subscripts.  Dist may have any of the
               standard forms for screen distances.

          -overstrike boolean
               Specifies whether or not to draw a horizontal rule
               through the middle of characters.

          -relief relief
               Relief specifies the 3-D relief to use for drawing
               backgrounds.  This option is used in conjunction with
               the -borderwidth option to give a 3-D appearance to the
               background for characters; it is ignored unless the
               -background option has been set for the tag.

          -rmargin dist
               If the first character of a display line has a tag for
               which this option has been specified, then dist speci-
               fies how wide a margin to leave between the end of the
               line and the right edge of the window.  This option is
               only used when wrapping is enabled.  If a text line
               wraps, the right margin for each line on the display is
               determined by the first character of that display line.

          -spacing1 dist
               Dist specifies how much additional space should be left
               above each text line, using any of the standard forms
               for screen distances.  If a line wraps, this option
               only applies to the first line on the display.

          -spacing2 dist
               For lines that wrap, this option specifies how much
               additional space to leave between the display lines for
               a single text line.  Dist may have any of the standard
               forms for screen distances.

          -spacing3 dist
               Dist specifies how much additional space should be left
               below each text line, using any of the standard forms
               for screen distances.  If a line wraps, this option

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

               only applies to the last line on the display.

          -tabs tabList
               TabList specifies a set of tab stops in the same form
               as for the -tabs option for the text widget.  This
               option only applies to a display line if it applies to
               the first character on that display line.  If this
               option is specified as an empty string, it cancels the
               option, leaving it unspecified for the tag (the
               default).  If the option is specified as a non-empty
               string that is an empty list, such as -tabs { }, then
               it requests default 8-character tabs as described for
               the tabs widget option.

          -underline boolean
               Boolean specifies whether or not to draw an underline
               underneath characters.

          -wrap mode
               Mode specifies how to handle lines that are wider than
               the text's window.  It has the same legal values as the
               -wrap option for the text widget:  none, char, or word.
               If this tag option is specified, it overrides the -wrap
               option for the text widget.

          If a character has several tags associated with it, and if
          their display options conflict, then the options of the
          highest priority tag are used.  If a particular display
          option hasn't been specified for a particular tag, or if it
          is specified as an empty string, then that option will never
          be used;  the next-highest-priority tag's option will be
          used instead.  If no tag specifies a particular display
          option, then the default style for the widget will be used.

          The second purpose for tags is event bindings.  You can
          associate bindings with a tag in much the same way you can
          associate bindings with a widget class:  whenever particular
          events occur on characters with the given tag, a given Tk
          command will be executed.  Tag bindings can be used to give
          behaviours to ranges of characters; among other things, this
          allows hypertext-like features to be implemented.  For
          details, see the description of the tag bind widget command
          below.

          The third use for tags is in managing the selection.  See
          THE SELECTION below.

     MARKS
          The second form of annotation in text widgets is a mark.
          Marks are used for remembering particular places in a text.
          They are something like tags, in that they have names and

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

          they refer to places in the file, but a mark isn't associ-
          ated with particular characters.  Instead, a mark is associ-
          ated with the gap between two characters.  Only a single
          position may be associated with a mark at any given time.
          If the characters around a mark are deleted the mark will
          still remain;  it will just have new neighbour characters.
          In contrast, if the characters containing a tag are deleted
          then the tag will no longer have an association with charac-
          ters in the file.  Marks may be manipulated with the ``path-
          Name mark'' widget command, and their current locations may
          be determined by using the mark name as an index in widget
          commands.

          Each mark also has a gravity, which is either left or right.
          The gravity for a mark specifies what happens to the mark
          when text is inserted at the point of the mark.  If a mark
          has left gravity, then the mark is treated as if it were
          attached to the character on its left, so the mark will
          remain to the left of any text inserted at the mark posi-
          tion.  If the mark has right gravity, new text inserted at
          the mark position will appear to the right of the mark.  The
          gravity for a mark defaults to right.

          The name space for marks is different from that for tags:
          the same name may be used for both a mark and a tag, but
          they will refer to different things.

          Two marks have special significance.  First, the mark insert
          is associated with the insertion cursor, as described under
          THE INSERTION CURSOR below.  Second, the mark current is
          associated with the character closest to the mouse and is
          adjusted automatically to track the mouse position and any
          changes to the text in the widget (one exception:  current
          is not updated in response to mouse motions if a mouse but-
          ton is down;  the update will be deferred until all mouse
          buttons have been released).  Neither of these special marks
          may be deleted.

     EMBEDDED WINDOWS
          The third form of annotation in text widgets is an embedded
          window.  Each embedded window annotation causes a window to
          be displayed at a particular point in  the text.  There may
          be any number of embedded windows in a text widget, and any
          widget may be used as an embedded window.  The embedded
          window's position on the screen will be updated as the text
          is modified or scrolled.  Each embedded window occupies one
          character's worth of index space in the text widget, and it
          may be referred to either by the name of its embedded window
          or by its position in the widget's index space.  If the
          range of text containing the embedded window is deleted and
          the window is a child of the text widget then the window is

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

          destroyed.

          When an embedded window is added to a text widget with the
          window create widget command, several configuration options
          may be associated with it.  These options may be  modified
          later with the window configure widget command.  The follow-
          ing options are currently supported:

          -align where
               If the window is not as tall as the line in which it is
               displayed, this option determines where the window is
               displayed in the line.  Where must have one of the val-
               ues top (align the top of the window with the top of
               the line), center (center the window within the range
               of the line), bottom (align the bottom of the window
               with the bottom of the line's area), or baseline (align
               the bottom of the window with the baseline of the
               line).

          -padx dist
               Dist specifies the amount of extra space to leave on
               each side of the embedded window.  It may have any of
               the usual forms defined for a screen distance.

          -pady dist
               Dist specifies the amount of extra space to leave on
               the top and on the bottom of the embedded window.  It
               may have any of the usual forms defined for a screen
               distance.

          -stretch boolean
               If the requested height of the embedded window is less
               than the height of the line in which it is displayed,
               this option can be used to specify whether the window
               should be stretched vertically to fill its line.  If
               the -pady option has been specified as well, then the
               requested padding will be retained even if the window
               is stretched.

          -window pathName
               Specifies the name of a window to display in the anno-
               tation.

     THE SELECTION
          Selection support is implemented via tags.  The sel tag is
          automatically defined when a text widget is created, and it
          may not be deleted with the ``pathName tag delete'' widget
          command.  Furthermore, the selectbackground, selectborder-
          width, and selectforeground options for the text widget are
          tied to the background, borderwidth, and foreground options
          for the sel tag:  changes in either will automatically be

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

          reflected in the other.

     THE INSERTION CURSOR
          The mark named insert has special significance in text wid-
          gets.  It is defined automatically when a text widget is
          created and it may not be unset with the ``pathName mark
          unset'' widget command.  The insert mark represents the
          position of the insertion cursor, and the insertion cursor
          will automatically be drawn at this point whenever the text
          widget has the input focus.

     WIDGET COMMAND
          The text command creates a new Tk command whose name is the
          same as the path name of the text's window.  This command
          may be used to invoke various operations on the widget.  It
          has the following general form:
               pathName option ?arg arg ...?
          PathName is the name of the command, which is the same as
          the text widget's path name.  Option and the args determine
          the exact behaviour of the command.  The following commands
          are possible for text widgets:

          pathName bbox index
               Returns a list of four elements describing the screen
               area of the character given by index.  The first two
               elements of the list give the x and y coordinates of
               the upper-left corner of the area occupied by the char-
               acter, and the last two elements give the width and
               height of the area.  If the character is only partially
               visible on the screen, then the return value reflects
               just the visible part.  If the character is not visible
               on the screen then the return value is an empty list.

          pathName cget option
               Returns the current value of the configuration option
               given by option.  Option may have any of the values
               accepted by the text command.

          pathName compare index1 op index2
               Compares the indices given by index1 and index2 accord-
               ing to the relational operator given by op, and returns
               1 if the relationship is satisfied and 0 if it isn't.
               Op must be one of the operators <, <=, ==, >=, >, or
               !=.  If op is == then 1 is returned if the two indices
               refer to the same character, if op is < then 1 is
               returned if index1 refers to an earlier character in
               the text than index2, and so on.

          pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
               Query or modify the configuration options of the

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

               widget.  If no option is specified, returns a list of
               all of the available options for pathName.  If one or
               more option-value pairs are specified, then the command
               modifies the given widget option(s) to have the given
               value(s);  in this case the command returns an empty
               string.  Option may have any of the values accepted by
               the text command.

          pathName debug ?boolean?
               If the value is a true one then internal consistency
               checks will be turned on in the code associated with
               text widgets.  If boolean has a false value then the
               debugging checks will be turned off.  In either case
               the command returns an empty string.  If boolean is not
               specified then the command returns on or off to indi-
               cate whether or not debugging is turned on.  There is a
               single debugging switch shared by all text widgets:
               turning debugging on or off in any widget turns it on
               or off for all widgets.  For widgets with large amounts
               of text, the consistency checks may cause a noticeable
               slow-down.

          pathName delete index1 ?index2?
               Delete a range of characters from the text.  If both
               index1 and index2 are specified, then delete all the
               characters starting with the one given by index1 and
               stopping just before index2 (i.e. the character at
               index2 is not deleted).  If index2 doesn't specify a
               position later in the text than index1 then no charac-
               ters are deleted.  If index2 isn't specified then the
               single character at index1 is deleted.  It is not
               allowable to delete characters in a way that would
               leave the text without a newline as the last character.
               The command returns an empty string.

          pathName dlineinfo index
               Returns a list with five elements describing the area
               occupied by the display line containing index.  The
               first two elements of the list give the x and y coordi-
               nates of the upper-left corner of the area occupied by
               the line, the third and fourth elements give the width
               and height of the area, and the fifth element gives the
               position of the baseline for the line, measured down
               from the top of the area.  All of this information is
               measured in pixels.  If the current wrap mode is none
               and the line extends beyond the boundaries of the win-
               dow, the area returned reflects the entire area of the
               line, including the portions that are out of the win-
               dow.  If the line is shorter than the full width of the
               window then the area returned reflects just the portion
               of the line that is occupied by characters and embedded
               windows.  If the display line containing index is not

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

               visible on the screen then the return value is an empty
               list.

          pathName get index1 ?index2?
               Return a range of characters from the text.  The return
               value will be all the characters in the text starting
               with the one whose index is index1 and ending just
               before the one whose index is index2 (the character at
               index2 will not be returned).  If index2 is omitted
               then the single character at index1 is returned.  If
               there are no characters in the specified range (e.g.
               index1 is past the end of the file or index2 is less
               than or equal to index1) then an empty string is
               returned.  If the specified range contains embedded
               windows, no information about them is included in the
               returned string.

          pathName index index
               Returns the position corresponding to index in the form
               line.char where line is the line number and char is the
               character number.  Index may have any of the forms
               described under INDICES above.

          pathName insert index chars ?tagList chars tagList ...?
               Inserts all of the chars arguments just before the
               character at index.  If index refers to the end of the
               text (the character after the last newline) then the
               new text is inserted just before the last newline
               instead.  If there is a single chars argument and no
               tagList, then the new text will receive any tags that
               are present on both the character before and the char-
               acter after the insertion point; if a tag is present on
               only one of these characters then it will not be
               applied to the new text.  If tagList is specified then
               it consists of a list of tag names;  the new characters
               will receive all of the tags in this list and no oth-
               ers, regardless of the tags present around the inser-
               tion point.  If multiple chars-tagList argument pairs
               are present, they produce the same effect as if a sepa-
               rate insert widget command had been issued for each
               pair, in order.  The last tagList argument may be omit-
               ted.

          pathName mark option ?arg arg ...?
               This command is used to manipulate marks.  The exact
               behaviour of the command depends on the option argument
               that follows the mark argument.  The following forms of
               the command are currently supported:

               pathName mark gravity markName ?direction?
                    If direction is not specified, returns left or
                    right to indicate which of its adjacent characters

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

                    markName is attached to.  If direction is speci-
                    fied, it must be left or right; the gravity of
                    markName is set to the given value.

               pathName mark names
                    Returns a list whose elements are the names of all
                    the marks that are currently set.

               pathName mark next index
                    Returns the name of the next mark at or after
                    index.  If index is specified in numerical form,
                    then the search for the next mark begins at that
                    index.  If index is the name of a mark, then the
                    search for the next mark begins immediately after
                    that mark.  This can still return a mark at the
                    same position if there are multiple marks at the
                    same index.  If a mark has been set to the special
                    end index, then it appears to be after end with
                    respect to the mark next operation.  An empty
                    string is returned if there are no marks after
                    index.

               pathName mark previous index
                    Returns the name of the mark at or before index.
                    If index is specified in numerical form, then the
                    search for the previous mark begins with the char-
                    acter just before that index.  If index is the
                    name of a mark, then the search for the next mark
                    begins immediately before that mark.  This can
                    still return a mark at the same position if there
                    are multiple marks at the same index.  An empty
                    string is returned if there are no marks before
                    index.

               pathName mark set markName index
                    Sets the mark named markName to a position just
                    before the character at index.  If markName
                    already exists, it is moved from its old position;
                    if it doesn't exist, a new mark is created.  This
                    command returns an empty string.

               pathName mark unset markName ?markName markName ...?
                    Remove the mark corresponding to each of the mark-
                    Name arguments.  The removed marks will not be
                    usable in indices and will not be returned by
                    future calls to ``pathName mark names''.  This
                    command returns an empty string.

          pathName scan option args
               This command is used to implement scanning on texts.
               It has two forms, depending on option:

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

               pathName scan mark x y
                    Records x and y and the current view in the text
                    window, for use in conjunction with later scan
                    dragto commands.  Typically this command is asso-
                    ciated with a mouse button press in the widget.
                    It returns an empty string.

               pathName scan dragto x y
                    This command computes the difference between its x
                    and y arguments and the x and y arguments to the
                    last scan mark command for the widget.  It then
                    adjusts the view by 10 times the difference in
                    coordinates.  This command is typically associated
                    with mouse motion events in the widget, to produce
                    the effect of dragging the text at high speed
                    through the window.  The return value is an empty
                    string.

          pathName search ?switches? pattern index ?stopIndex?
               Searches the text in pathName starting at index for a
               range of characters that matches pattern.  If a match
               is found, the index of the first character in the match
               is returned as result;  otherwise an empty string is
               returned.  One or more of the following switches may be
               specified to control the search:

               -backwards
                    The search will proceed backward through the text,
                    finding the matching range closest to index whose
                    first character is before index.

               -nocase
                    Ignore case differences between the pattern and
                    the text.

               --   This switch has no effect except to terminate the
                    list of switches: the next argument will be
                    treated as pattern even if it starts with -.

               The matching range must be entirely within a single
               line of text.  If stopIndex is specified, the search
               stops at that index: for forward searches, no match at
               or after stopIndex will be considered;  for backward
               searches, no match earlier in the text than stopIndex
               will be considered.  If stopIndex is omitted, the
               entire text will be searched: when the beginning or end
               of the text is reached, the search continues at the
               other end until the starting location is reached again;
               if stopIndex is specified, no wrap-around will occur.

          pathName see index
               Adjusts the view in the window so that the character

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

               given by index is completely visible.  If index is
               already visible then the command does nothing.  If
               index is a short distance out of view, the command
               adjusts the view just enough to make index visible at
               the edge of the window.  If index is far out of view,
               then the command centers index in the window.

          pathName tag option ?arg arg ...?
               This command is used to manipulate tags.  The exact
               behaviour of the command depends on the option argument
               that follows the tag argument.  The following forms of
               the command are currently supported:

               pathName tag add tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2 ...?
                    Associate the tag tagName with all of the charac-
                    ters starting with index1 and ending just before
                    index2 (the character at index2 isn't tagged).  A
                    single command may contain any number of index1-
                    index2 pairs.  If the last index2 is omitted then
                    the single character at index1 is tagged.  If
                    there are no characters in the specified range
                    (e.g. index1 is past the end of the file or index2
                    is less than or equal to index1) then the command
                    has no effect.

               pathName tag bind tagName ?sequence? ?script?
                    This command associates script with the tag given
                    by tagName.  Whenever the event sequence given by
                    sequence occurs for a character that has been
                    tagged with tagName, the script will be invoked.
                    This widget command is similar to the bind command
                    except that it operates on characters in a text
                    rather than entire widgets.  See the bind manual
                    entry for complete details on the syntax of
                    sequence and the substitutions performed on script
                    before invoking it.  If all arguments are speci-
                    fied then a new binding is created, replacing any
                    existing binding for the same sequence and tagName
                    (if the first character of script is ``+'' then
                    script augments an existing binding rather than
                    replacing it).  In this case the return value is
                    an empty string.

                    The only events for which bindings may be speci-
                    fied are those related to the mouse and keyboard,
                    such as Enter, Leave, ButtonPress, Motion, and
                    KeyPress.  Event bindings for a text widget use
                    the current mark described under MARKS above.  An
                    Enter event triggers for a tag when the tag first
                    becomes present on the current character, and a
                    Leave event triggers for a tag when it ceases to
                    be present on the current character.  Enter and

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

                    Leave events can happen either because the current
                    mark moved or because the character at that posi-
                    tion changed.  Note that these events are differ-
                    ent than Enter and Leave events for windows.
                    Mouse and keyboard events are directed to the cur-
                    rent character.

                    It is possible for the current character to have
                    multiple tags, and for each of them to have a
                    binding for a particular event sequence.  When
                    this occurs, one binding is invoked for each tag,
                    in order from lowest-priority to highest priority.
                    If there are multiple matching bindings for a sin-
                    gle tag, then the most specific binding is chosen
                    (see the manual entry for the bind command for
                    details).

                    If bindings are created for the widget as a whole
                    using the bind command, then those bindings will
                    supplement the tag bindings.  The tag bindings
                    will be invoked first, followed by bindings for
                    the window as a whole.

               pathName tag cget tagName option
                    This command returns the current value of the
                    option named option associated with the tag given
                    by tagName.  Option may have any of the values
                    accepted by the tag configure widget command.

               value ...?
               pathName tag configure tagName ?option? ?value? ?option
                    This command is similar to the configure widget
                    command except that it modifies options associated
                    with the tag given by tagName instead of modifying
                    options for the overall text widget.  If one or
                    more option-value pairs are specified, then the
                    command modifies the given option(s) to have the
                    given value(s) in tagName.  See TAGS above for
                    details on the options available for tags.

               pathName tag delete tagName ?tagName ...?
                    Deletes all tag information for each of the tag-
                    Name arguments.  The command removes the tags from
                    all characters in the file and also deletes any
                    other information associated with the tags, such
                    as bindings and display information.  The command
                    returns an empty string.

               pathName tag lower tagName ?belowThis?
                    Changes the priority of tag tagName so that it is
                    just lower in priority than the tag whose name is
                    belowThis.  If belowThis is omitted, then

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

                    tagName's priority is changed to make it lowest
                    priority of all tags.

               pathName tag names ?index?
                    Returns a list whose elements are the names of all
                    the tags that are active at the character position
                    given by index.  If index is omitted, then the
                    return value will describe all of the tags that
                    exist for the text (this includes all tags that
                    have been named in a ``pathName tag'' widget com-
                    mand but haven't been deleted by a ``pathName tag
                    delete'' widget command, even if no characters are
                    currently marked with the tag).  The list will be
                    sorted in order from highest priority to lowest
                    priority.

               pathName tag nextrange tagName index1 ?index2?
                    This command searches the text for a range of
                    characters tagged with tagName where the first
                    character of the range is no earlier than the
                    character at index1 and no later than the charac-
                    ter just before index2 (a range starting at index2
                    will not be considered).  If several matching
                    ranges exist, the first one is chosen.  The
                    command's return value is a list containing two
                    elements, which are the index of the first charac-
                    ter of the range and the index of the character
                    just after the last one in the range.  If no
                    matching range is found then the return value is
                    an empty string.  If index2 is not given then it
                    defaults to the end of the text.

               pathName tag prevrange tagName index1 ?index2?
                    This command searches the text for a range of
                    characters tagged with tagName where the first
                    character of the range is before the character at
                    index1 and no earlier than the character at index2
                    (a range starting at index2 will be considered).
                    If several matching ranges exist, the one closest
                    to index1 is chosen.  The command's return value
                    is a list containing two elements, which are the
                    index of the first character of the range and the
                    index of the character just after the last one in
                    the range.  If no matching range is found then the
                    return value is an empty string.  If index2 is not
                    given then it defaults to the beginning of the
                    text.

               pathName tag raise tagName ?aboveThis?
                    Changes the priority of tag tagName so that it is
                    just higher in priority than the tag whose name is
                    aboveThis.  If aboveThis is omitted, then

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

                    tagName's priority is changed to make it highest
                    priority of all tags.

               pathName tag ranges tagName
                    Returns a list describing all of the ranges of
                    text that have been tagged with tagName.  The
                    first two elements of the list describe the first
                    tagged range in the text, the next two elements
                    describe the second range, and so on.  The first
                    element of each pair contains the index of the
                    first character of the range, and the second ele-
                    ment of the pair contains the index of the charac-
                    ter just after the last one in the range.  If
                    there are no characters tagged with tag then an
                    empty string is returned.

               ...?
               pathName tag remove tagName index1 ?index2 index1 index2
                    Remove the tag tagName from all of the characters
                    starting at index1 and ending just before index2
                    (the character at index2 isn't affected).  A sin-
                    gle command may contain any number of index1-
                    index2 pairs.  If the last index2 is omitted then
                    the single character at index1 is tagged.  If
                    there are no characters in the specified range
                    (e.g. index1 is past the end of the file or index2
                    is less than or equal to index1) then the command
                    has no effect.  This command returns an empty
                    string.

          pathName window option ?arg arg ...?
               This command is used to manipulate embedded windows.
               The behaviour of the command depends on the option
               argument that follows the window argument.  The follow-
               ing forms of the command are currently supported:

               pathName window cget index option
                    Returns the value of a configuration option for an
                    embedded window.  Index identifies the embedded
                    window, and option specifies a particular configu-
                    ration option, which must be one of the ones
                    listed in the section EMBEDDED WINDOWS.

               pathName window configure index ?option value ...?
                    Query or modify the configuration options for an
                    embedded window.  If one or more option-value
                    pairs are specified, then the command modifies the
                    given option(s) to have the given value(s).  See
                    EMBEDDED WINDOWS for information on the options
                    that are supported.

               pathName window create index ?option value ...?

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

                    This command creates a new window annotation,
                    which will appear in the text at the position
                    given by index.  Any number of option-value pairs
                    may be specified to configure the annotation.  See
                    EMBEDDED WINDOWS for information on the options
                    that are supported.  Returns an empty string.

               pathName window names
                    Returns a list whose elements are the names of all
                    windows currently embedded in window.

          pathName xview option args
               This command is used to query and change the horizontal
               position of the text in the widget's window.  It can
               take any of the following forms:

               pathName xview
                    Returns a list containing two elements.  Each ele-
                    ment is a real fraction between 0 and 1;  together
                    they describe the portion of the document's hori-
                    zontal span that is visible in the window.  For
                    example, if the first element is .2 and the second
                    element is .6, 20% of the text is off-screen to
                    the left, the middle 40% is visible in the window,
                    and 40% of the text is off-screen to the right.
                    The fractions refer only to the lines that are
                    actually visible in the window:  if the lines in
                    the window are all very short, so that they are
                    entirely visible, the returned fractions will be 0
                    and 1, even if there are other lines in the text
                    that are much wider than the window.  These are
                    the same values passed to scrollbars via the
                    -xscrollcommand option.

               pathName xview moveto fraction
                    Adjusts the view in the window so that fraction of
                    the horizontal span of the text is off-screen to
                    the left.  Fraction is a fraction between 0 and 1.

               pathName xview scroll number what
                    This command shifts the view in the window left or
                    right according to number and what.  Number must
                    be an integer.  What must be either units or
                    pages.  If what is units, the view adjusts left or
                    right by number average-width characters on the
                    display;  if it is pages then the view adjusts by
                    number screenfuls.  If number is negative then
                    characters farther to the left become visible;  if
                    it is positive then characters farther to the
                    right become visible.

          pathName yview ?args?

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

               This command is used to query and change the vertical
               position of the text in the widget's window.  It can
               take any of the following forms:

               pathName yview
                    Returns a list containing two elements, both of
                    which are real fractions between 0 and 1.  The
                    first element gives the position of the first
                    character in the top line in the window, relative
                    to the text as a whole (0.5 means it is halfway
                    through the text, for example).  The second ele-
                    ment gives the position of the character just
                    after the last one in the bottom line of the win-
                    dow, relative to the text as a whole.  These are
                    the same values passed to scrollbars via the
                    -yscrollcommand option.

               pathName yview moveto fraction
                    Adjusts the view in the window so that the charac-
                    ter given by fraction appears on the top line of
                    the window.  Fraction is a fraction between 0 and
                    1;  0 indicates the first character in the text,
                    0.33 indicates the character one-third the way
                    through the text, and so on.

               pathName yview scroll number what
                    This command adjust the view in the window up or
                    down according to number and what.  Number must be
                    an integer.  What must be either units or pages.
                    If what is units, the view adjusts up or down by
                    number lines on the display;  if it is pages then
                    the view adjusts by number screenfuls.  If number
                    is negative then earlier positions in the text
                    become visible;  if it is positive then later
                    positions in the text become visible.

               pathName yview ?-pickplace? index
                    Changes the view in the widget's window to make
                    index visible.  If the -pickplace option isn't
                    specified then index will appear at the top of the
                    window.  If -pickplace is specified then the wid-
                    get chooses where index appears in the window:

                    [1]  If index is already visible somewhere in the
                         window then the command does nothing.

                    [2]  If index is only a few lines off-screen above
                         the window then it will be positioned at the
                         top of the window.

                    [3]  If index is only a few lines off-screen below
                         the window then it will be positioned at the

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

                         bottom of the window.

                    [4]  Otherwise, index will be centered in the win-
                         dow.

                    The -pickplace option has been made obsolete by
                    the see widget command (see handles both x- and
                    y-motion to make a location visible, whereas
                    -pickplace only handles motion in y).

     BINDINGS
          Tk automatically creates bindings for texts that give them
          the following default behaviour.  In the descriptions below,
          ``word'' refers to a contiguous group of letters, digits, or
          ``_'' characters, or any single character other than these.

          [1]  Clicking mouse button 1 positions the insertion cursor
               just before the character underneath the mouse cursor,
               sets the input focus to this widget, and clears any
               selection in the widget.  Dragging with mouse button 1
               strokes out a selection between the insertion cursor
               and the character under the mouse.

          [2]  Double-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the word
               under the mouse and positions the insertion cursor at
               the beginning of the word.  Dragging after a double
               click is ignored.

          [3]  If any normal printing characters are typed, they are
               inserted at the point of the insertion cursor, replac-
               ing the current selection.

          [4]  If the mouse is dragged out of the widget while button
               1 is pressed, the entry will automatically scroll to
               make more text visible (if there is more text off-
               screen on the side where the mouse left the window).

          [5]  The Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one
               character to the left or right;  they also clear any
               selection in the text.  Control-b and Control-f behave
               the same as Left and Right, respectively.

          [6]  The Up and Down keys move the insertion cursor one line
               up or down and clear any selection in the text.
               Control-p and Control-n behave the same as Up and Down,
               respectively.

          [7]  The Page-up and Page-down keys move the view up or down
               one screenful without moving the insertion cursor or
               adjusting the selection.  IControl-v behaves the same
               as Page-down.

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

          [8]  Home, Control-a and Control-< move the insertion cursor
               to the beginning of its line and clear any selection in
               the widget.

          [9]  End, Control-e and Control-> move the insertion cursor
               to the end of the line and clear any selection in the
               widget.

          [10] The Delete key deletes the selection, if there is one
               in the widget.  If there is no selection, it deletes
               the character to the right of the insertion cursor.

          [11] Backspace and Control-h delete the selection, if there
               is one in the widget.  If there is no selection, they
               delete the character to the left of the insertion cur-
               sor.

          [12] Control-d deletes the character to the right of the
               insertion cursor.

          [13] Control-k deletes from the insertion cursor to the end
               of its line; if the insertion cursor is already at the
               end of a line, then Control-k deletes all of the next
               line.

          [14] Control-o opens a new line by inserting a newline char-
               acter in front of the insertion cursor without moving
               the insertion cursor.

          [15] Control-u deletes from the insertion cursor to the
               start of its line; if the insertion cursor is already
               at the start of the line, then the current line is
               joined with the previous one.

          [16] Control-w deletes from the insertion cursor to the
               start of the word that contains it; if the insertion
               cursor is at the start of the line, then the current
               line is joined with the previous one.

          If the widget is disabled using the -state option, then its
          view can still be adjusted and text can still be selected,
          but no insertion cursor will be displayed and no text modi-
          fications will take place.

          The behaviour of texts can be changed by defining new bind-
          ings for individual widgets.

     BUGS
          Tab alignment doesn't work correctly.

          The -stretch option on embedded windows is not implemented.

     TEXT(9)                                                   TEXT(9)

     SEE ALSO
          entry(9), options(9), types(9)