IP(3)                                                       IP(3)

          ip - network protocols over IP

          bind -a #I[ifn] /net




          The IP device serves a directory representing a self-
          contained collection of IP interfaces.  There may be several
          instances, identified by the decimal interface number ifn,
          that follows the #I device name; #I0 is assumed by default.
          Each instance has a disjoint collection of IP interfaces,
          routes and address resolution maps.  A physical or virtual
          device, or medium, that produces IP packets is associated
          with a logical IP network using the mechanisms described
          under Physical and logical interfaces below.  Commonly all
          IP media on a host are assigned to a single instance of #I,
          which is conventionally bound to /net, but other configura-
          tions are possible: interfaces might be assigned to differ-
          ent device instances forming separate logical IP networks to
          partition networks in firewall or gateway applications.

          Hosted Inferno provides a subset of the interface described

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)

          here that gives to  the TCP/IP and UDP/IP of the host
          system's own IP subsystem.  See Hosted interfaces below for
          a summary of the differences.

          Within each instance, the IP device provides an interface to
          each IP protocol configured into the system, such as TCP/IP
          or UDP/IP.

          Each of the protocols is served by the IP device, which rep-
          resents a connection by a set of device files.  The top
          level directory, proto in the SYNOPSIS above, is named after
          a protocol (eg, tcp, il, udp) and contains a clone file, a
          stats file, and subdirectories numbered from zero to the
          number of connections configured for this protocol.

          The read-only stats file contains protocol-specific statis-
          tics as one or more lines of text.  There is no particular
          format, but the values are often a superset of those
          required by the SNMP MIB.

          Opening the clone file reserves a connection, represented by
          one of the numbered subdirectories.  The resulting file
          descriptor will be open on the control file, ctl, of the
          newly allocated connection.  Reading the ctl file returns a
          text string representing the number of the connection.  Con-
          nections may be used either to listen for incoming calls or
          to initiate calls to other machines.

          A connection is controlled by writing text strings to the
          associated ctl file.  After a connection has been estab-
          lished data may be read from and written to the data file.

          Before sending data, remote and local addresses must be set
          for the connection.  For outgoing calls the local port num-
          ber will be allocated randomly if none is set.  Addresses
          are set by writing control messages to the ctl file of the
          connection.  The connection is not established until the
          data file is opened.  There are two models depending on the
          nature of the protocol.  For connection-oriented protocols,
          the process will block on open until the remote host has
          acknowledged the connection, either accepting it, causing a
          successful return from open, or rejecting it, causing open
          to return an appropriate error.  For connectionless proto-
          cols, the open always succeeds; the `connect' request sets
          local parameters for the source and destination fields for
          use by subsequent read and write requests.

          The following control messages are provided by this inter-
          face to all protocols.  A particular protocol can provide
          additional commands, or change the interpretation or even
          syntax of those below, as described in the manual page for

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)

          that protocol.  The description below shows the standard
          commands with the default argument syntax and interpreta-

          connect ipaddress!port[!r] [lport]
               Set the remote IP address and port number for the con-
               nection.  If the r flag is supplied and the optional
               local port lport has not been specified the system will
               allocate a restricted port number (between 600 and
               1024) for the connection to allow communication with
               Unix machines' login and exec services.

          announce [ipaddress!]port
               Set the local port number to port and accept calls to
               that port.  Port is a decimal port number or `*'.  If
               port is zero, assign a port number (the one assigned
               can be read from the local address file).  If port is
               `*', accept calls for any port that no process has
               explicitly announced.  If the optional ipaddress is
               given, set the local IP address for the connection to
               that address, and accept only those incoming calls to
               port that are addressed to ipaddress. Announce fails if
               the connection is already announced or connected.

          bind port
               Port is a decimal port number or `*'.  Set the local
               port number to port. This request exists to support
               emulation of of BSD sockets and is otherwise neither
               needed nor used in Inferno.

          tos [ n ]
               Set the type-of-service value in outgooing packets to n
               (default: 0).

          ttl [ n ]
               Set the time-to-live (TTL) value in packets transmitted
               on this conversation to n (default: 255).

          Port numbers must be in the range 1 to 32767.

          Several read-only files report the status of a connection.
          The remote and local files contain the IP address and port
          number for the remote and local side of the connection.  The
          status file contains protocol-dependent information to help
          debug network connections.  The first word on the first line
          gives the status of the connection.

          Having announced, a process may accept incoming connections
          by calling open on the listen file.  The open will block
          until a new connection request arrives; it will then return
          an open file descriptor that points to the control file of
          the newly accepted connection.  Repeating this procedure

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)

          will accept all calls for the given protocol.

          In general it should not be necessary to use the file system
          interface to the networks.  The dial, announce, and listen
          functions described in sys-dial(2) perform the necessary I/O
          to establish and manipulate network connections.

        TCP protocol
          The TCP protocol is the standard Internet protocol for reli-
          able stream communication; it does not preserve read/write

          A connection is controlled by writing text strings to the
          associated ctl file.  After a connection has been estab-
          lished data may be read from and written to the data file.
          The TCP protocol provides a stream connection that does not
          preserve read/write boundaries.

          For outgoing calls the local port number will be allocated
          randomly if none is set.  Addresses are set by writing con-
          trol messages to the ctl file of the connection.  The con-
          nection is not established until the data file is opened.
          For TCP the process will block until the remote host has
          acknowledged the connection.

          As well as the standard control messages above, TCP accepts
          the following:

               Send a TCP reset (RST) to the remote side and end the
               conversation, without waiting for untransmitted data to
               be acknowledged, unlike a normal close of the device.

          keepalive [n]
               Enable `keep alive' mode: if no traffic crosses the
               link within a given period, send a packet to check that
               the remote party is still there, and remind it that the
               local connection is still live.  The optional value n
               gives the keep-alive time in milliseconds (default:

          The status file has many lines, each containing a labelled
          number, giving the values of parameters and statistics such
          as: maximum allowed connections, outgoing calls, incoming
          calls, established but later reset, active calls, input seg-
          ments, output segments, retransmitted segments, retransmit-
          ted timeouts, input errors, transmitted reset.

        UDP protocol
          UDP provides the standard Internet protocol for unreliable
          datagram communication.

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)

          UDP opens always succeed.  Before sending data, remote and
          local addresses must be set for the connection.  Alterna-
          tively, the following special control requests can be used:

               Set the connection to use an address header with IPv6
               addressing on reads and writes of the data file, allow-
               ing a single connection to send datagrams to converse
               with many different destination addresses and ports.
               The 52 byte binary header appears before the data read
               or written.  It contains: remote IP address, local IP
               address, interface IP address, remote port, and local
               port.  The IP addresses are 16 bytes each in IPv6 for-
               mat, and the port addresses are 2 bytes each, all writ-
               ten in network (big-endian) order.  On reads, the
               header gives the values from the incoming datagram,
               except that if the remote used a multicast destination
               address, the IP address of the receiving interface is
               substituted.  On writes, the header provides the desti-
               nation for the resulting datagram, and if the local IP
               address corresponds to a valid local unicast interface,
               that address is used, otherwise the IP address of the
               transmitting interface is substituted.

               Set the connection to use an address header with IPv4
               addresses on reads and writes of the data file, allow-
               ing a single connection to send datagrams to converse
               with many different destination addresses and ports.
               The 12 byte binary header appears before the data read
               or written.  It contains: remote IP address, local IP
               address, remote port, and local port.  The IP addresses
               are 4 bytes each, the port addresses are 2 bytes each,
               all written in network (big-endian) order.  On reads,
               the header gives the values from the incoming datagram.
               On writes, the header provides the destination for the
               resulting datagram.  This mode is obsolete and destined
               for oblivion.

          A read of less than the size of the datagram will cause the
          entire datagram to be consumed.  Each write to the data file
          will send a single datagram on the network.

          In replies, in connection-oriented mode, if the remote
          address has not been set, the first arriving packet sets the
          following based on the source of the incoming datagram: the
          remote address and port for the conversation, and the local
          address is set to the destination address in the datagram
          unless that is a multicast address, and then the address of
          the receiving interface is used.

          If a conversation is in headers mode, only the local port is

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)


          Connection-oriented UDP is hungup if an ICMP error (eg, host
          or port unreachable, or time exceeded) arrives with matching

          The udp status file contains four lines, each containing a
          labelled number counting an event: input datagrams, data-
          grams on unannounced ports, datagrams with wrong checksum,
          and output datagrams.

        IL Protocol
          IL provides a reliable point-to-point datagram service for
          communication between Plan 9 and native Inferno machines.
          Each read and write transfers a single datagram, as for UDP.
          The datagrams are delivered reliably and in order.  Conver-
          sations are addressed and established as for TCP.

          The iproute file can be read and written.  When read, it
          returns the contents of the IP routing tables, one line per
          entry, with six fields giving the destination host or net-
          work address, address mask, gateway address, route type, tag
          (see below), and the number of the ipifc interface owning
          the route (or `-' if none).  The route type is up to four
          characters: 4 or 6 (IPv4 or IPv6 route); i (route is inter-
          face); one of u (unicast), b (broadcast), or m (multicast);
          and lastly p if the route is point-to-point.

          Commands can also be written to control the routing:

          add ip mask gw [ tag ]
               Add a route via the gateway identified by IP address gw
               to the address specified by ip and subnet mask mask.
               Tag the resulting table entry with the tag provided, or
               the current tag (see tag below), or the tag none.

          flush [ tag ]
               Remove all routes with the given tag that do not corre-
               spond to a local interface.  If tag is not given, flush
               all routes.

          remove ip mask
               Remove routes to the given address.

          tag tag
               Tag the routes generated by writes on the current file
               descriptor with the given tag of up to 4 characters.
               The default is none, set when iproute is opened.

          The ipselftab file summarises the addresses and routes that
          refer to the local host.  It gives an address, the number of

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)

          logical interfaces, and the interface type in the same form
          as the route type of iproute.

          The iprouter file is provided for use by a user-level appli-
          cation acting as an IP gateway.  It is effective only when
          the kernel-level gateway is not enabled (see the iprouting
          interface control request below).  Once opened, packets that
          are not addressed to a local address can be read from this
          device.  The packet contents are preceded by a 16 byte
          binary header that gives the IPv6 address of the local
          interface that received the packet.

          The read-only bootp file contains the results of the last
          BOOTP request transmitted on any interface (see Physical and
          logical interfaces below) as several lines of text, with two
          fields each.  The first field names an entity and the second
          field gives its value in IPv4 address format.  The current
          entities are:

               auip    Authentication server address
               fsip    File server address
               gwip    Address of an IP gateway out of this (sub)net.
               ipaddr  Local IP address
               ipmask  Subnet mask for the local IP address

          If any value is unknown (no reply to BOOTP, or value unspec-
          ified), the value will be zero, represented as

        Address resolution
          The arp file can be read and written.  When read, it returns
          the contents of the current ARP cache as a sequence of
          lines, one per map entry, giving type, state, IP address and
          corresponding MAC address.  Several textual commands can be
          written to it:

          add [ medium ] ip mac
               Add a mapping from IP address ip to the given mac
               address (a sequence of bytes in hexadecimal) on the
               given medium. It must support address resolution (eg,
               Ethernet).  If the medium is not specified, find the
               one associated with a route to ip (which must be IPv4).

               Clear the cache.

          The log file provides protocol tracing and debugging data.
          While the file is held open, the system saves, in a small
          circular buffer, error messages logged by selected proto-
          cols.  When read, it returns data not previously read,

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)

          blocking until there is data to read.  The following com-
          mands can be written to determine what is logged:

          set proto ...
               Enable logging of messages from each source proto, one
               or more of: ppp, ip, fs, tcp, il, icmp, udp, compress,
               ilmsg, gre, tcpmsg, udpmsg, ipmsg and esp.

          clear proto ...
               Disable logging of messages from the given sources.

        Physical and logical interfaces
          The configuration of the physical and logical IP interfaces
          in a given instance of #I uses a virtual protocol ipifc
          within that instance, that adds, controls and removes IP
          interfaces.  It is represented by the protocol directory
          ipifc.  Each connection corresponds to an interface to a
          physical or virtual medium on which IP packets can be sent
          and received.  It has a set of associated values: minimum
          and maximum transfer unit, MAC address, and a set of logical
          IP interfaces.  Each logical IP interface has local and
          remote addresses and an address mask.

          Opening the clone file returns a file descriptor open on the
          ctl file for a new connection.  A medium is then attached
          using a bind request; logical interfaces are associated by
          connect or add; they are removed by remove; and finally
          unbind detaches the medium from the connection.  For certain
          types of media, the unbind is automatic when the connection
          itself is closed.  With most media, including Ethernet, the
          ipifc connection files can be closed after configuration,
          and later reopened if need be to add or remove logical
          interfaces, or set other parameters.

          The ctl file responds to the following text commands,
          including interface-specific variants of standard IP device

          bind medium [ name [ arg ... ]
               Attach device medium to the interface, which must not
               already be bound to a device.  The name and subsequent
               arguments are interpreted by the driver for the medium.
               The device name associated with the interface is name,
               if given, or a generated name otherwise.

          connect ip [mask [remote [mtu ]]]
               Remove all existing logical interfaces and create a new
               one as if by add (see below).  The connection must be
               bound to a medium.

          add ip [ mask [ remote [ mtu ] ] ]
               Add a logical interface with local IP address ip. The

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)

               default for mask is the mask for ip's address class;
               for the remote address, ip's network; and for mtu, the
               largest MTU allowed by the medium.  The new interface
               is registered in the IP routing tables.

               Broadcast a BOOTP packet (using udp).  If a valid
               response is received, set the interface's IP address
               and mask, and the IP stack's default gateway to the
               results obtained from BOOTP.  The results are also
               available to applications by reading the bootp file
               above.  Note that this mechanism is now deprecated in
               favour of dhcpclient(2).

          remove ip mask
               Remove the logical interface determined by ip and mask.

          iprouting [n]
               Control the use of IP routing on this ip(3) instance.
               If n is missing or non-zero, allow use as a gateway,
               rerouting via one interface packets received on
               another.  By default, or if n is zero, use as a gateway
               is not allowed: if a packet received is not addressed
               to any local interface, either pass it to a gateway
               application if active (see iprouter in ip(3)), and oth-
               erwise drop the packet.

          mtu n
               Set the maximum transmit unit (MTU) on this interface
               to n bytes, which must be valid for the medium.

          addmulti multi
               Add the multicast address multi to the interface.

          remmulti multi
               Remove the multicast address multi from the interface.

               Remove any association between the current medium
               (device) and the connection: remove all routes using
               this interface, detach the device, stop packet trans-
               port, and remove all logical interfaces.  The connec-
               tion is ready for re-use.

          The local file contains one line for each logical interface,
          of the form:


          where local is the local address associated with the inter-
          face and each self is a broadcast or multicast address that
          can address that interface, including subnet addresses, if

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)


          The status file contains many fields: the first two give the
          device name and the value of the current MTU, followed by 7
          fields per line for each logical interface: local address,
          address mask, remote address, packets in, packets out, input
          errors, and output errors.

          The following sections describe the media drivers available.
          Each is separately configurable into a kernel.

        Ethernet medium
          Ethernet devices as described in ether(3) can be bound to an
          IP interface.  The bind request has the form:

               bind ether device

          The interface opens two conversations on the given Ethernet
          device, for instance ether0, using an internal version of
          dial, with the addresses device!0x800 (IPv4) and
          device!0x806 (ARP).  See sys-dial(2) for the interpretation
          of such addresses.  The interface runs until a process does
          an explicit unbind.  Multicast settings made on the inter-
          face are propagated to the device.

        Point-to-point medium
          An asynchronous serial device as described in eia(3) can be
          bound to an interface as a Point-to-Point protocol (PPP)
          device.  The bind request has the form:

               bind ppp serial ip remote mtu framing username secret

          All parameters except serial are optional.  The character
          `-' can appear as a placeholder for any parameter.  Except
          for authentication data, an attempt is made to negotiate
          suitable values for any missing parameter values, including
          network addresses.  The parameters are interpreted as fol-

               serial    Name of the device that will run PPP.
               ip        Local IP address for the interface.
               remote    IP address of the other end of the link.
               mtu       Initial MTU value for negotiation (default:
               framing   If framing is zero, do not provide asynch.
                         framing (on by default).  Unimplemented.
               username  Identification string used in PAP or CHAP
               secret    Secret used in authentication; with CHAP it
                         never crosses the link.

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)

          If the name serial contains `!'  a connection will be opened
          using dial (see sys-dial(2)). Otherwise the name will be
          opened as-is; usually it is the name of a serial device (eg,
          #t/eia0).  In the latter case, a companion ctl file will
          also be opened if possible, to set serial characteristics
          for PPP (flow control, 64kbyte queue size, nonblocking
          writes).  An attempt is made to start the PPP link immedi-
          ately.  The write of the bind control message returns with
          an error if the link cannot be started, or if negotiation
          fails.  The PPP link is automatically unbound if the line
          hangs up (eg, modem drops carrier), or an unrecoverable
          error occurs when reading or writing the connection.

          The PPP implementation can use either PAP and CHAP authenti-
          cation, as negotiated, provided an appropriate username and
          secret is given in the bind request.  It does not yet sup-
          port the Microsoft authentication scheme.

        Packet medium
          The packet medium allows an application to be source and
          sink for IP packets.  It is bound to an interface by the
          simple request:

               bind pkt

          All other interface parameters including its IP address are
          set using the standard ipifc requests described above.  Once
          that has been done, the application reads the data file of
          the interface to receive packets addressed to the interface,
          and it writes to the file to inject packets into the IP net-
          work.  The interface is automatically unbound when all
          interface files are closed.

        Hosted interfaces
          Native Inferno and Plan 9 have related IP implementations.
          Plan 9 emu therefore simply imports Plan 9's /net, and in
          the absence of version-specific differences, what is
          described above still applies.

          On all other hosted platforms, the IP device gives applica-
          tions within emu(1) a portable interface to TCP/IP and
          UDP/IP, even through it is ultimately using the host
          system's own TCP/IP and UDP/IP implementations (usually but
          not always socket based).  The interface remains the same:
          for instance by /net/tcp and /net/udp, but is currently more
          limited in the set of services and control requests.  Both
          IPv4 and IPv6 address syntax may be used, but the IPv6 form
          must still map to the IPv4 address space.  Only TCP and UDP
          are generally available, and a limited interface to ARP on
          some platforms (see below).  The set of TCP/UDP control
          requests is limited to: connect, announce, bind, ttl, tos,
          ignoreadvice, headers4, oldheaders, headers, hangup and

     IP(3)                                                       IP(3)


          The write-only arp file is implemented only on some Unix
          systems, and is intended to allow the implementation of the
          BOOTP protocol using Inferno, on hosted systems.  It accepts
          a single textual control request:

          add ip ether
               Add a new ARP map entry, or replace an existing one,
               for IP address ip, associating it with the given ether
               MAC address.  The ip address is expressed in the usual
               dotted address notation; ether is a 12 digit hexadeci-
               mal number.

          An error results if the host system does not allow the ARP
          map to be set, or the current user lacks the privileges to
          set it.