2L(10.1)                                                 2L(10.1)

     NAME
          0l, 1l, 2l, 5l, 6l, 7l, 8l, kl, ql, vl - loaders

     SYNOPSIS
          2l [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
          etc.

     DESCRIPTION
          These commands load the named files into executable files
          for the corresponding architectures; see 2c(10.1) for the
          correspondence between an architecture and the character (1,
          2, etc.)  that specifies it.  The files should be object
          files or libraries (archives of object files) for the appro-
          priate architecture.  Also, a name like -lext represents the
          library libext.a in /$objtype/lib, where objtype is one of
          68000, etc. as listed in 2c(10.1). The libraries must have
          tables of contents (see iar(10.1)).

          In practice, -l options are rarely necessary as the header
          files for the libraries cause their archives to be included
          automatically in the load (see 2c(10.1)). For example, any
          program that includes header file libc.h causes the loader
          to search the C library /$objtype/lib/libc.a.  Also, the
          loader creates an undefined symbol _main (or _mainp if pro-
          filing is enabled) to force loading of the startup linkage
          from the C library.

          The order of search to resolve undefined symbols is to load
          all files and libraries mentioned explicitly on the command
          line, and then to resolve remaining symbols by searching in
          topological order libraries mentioned in header files
          included by files already loaded.  When scanning such
          libraries, the algorithm is to scan each library repeatedly
          until no new undefined symbols are picked up, then to start
          on the next library.  Thus if library A needs B which needs
          A again, it may be necessary to mention A explicitly so it
          will be read a second time.

          The loader options are:

          -l        (As a bare option.)  Suppress the default loading
                    of the startup linkage and libraries specified by
                    header files.

          -o out    Place output in file out. Default is O.out, where
                    O is the first letter of the loader name.

          -p        Insert profiling code into the executable output;
                    no special action is needed during compilation or
                    assembly.

     2L(10.1)                                                 2L(10.1)

          -s        Strip the symbol tables from the output file.

          -a        Print the object code in assembly language, with
                    addresses.

          -v        Print debugging output that annotates the activi-
                    ties of the load.

          -M        (kl only) Generate instructions rather than calls
                    to emulation routines for multiply and divide.

          -Esymbol  The entry point for the binary is symbol (default
                    _main; _mainp under -p).

          -x        [ file ] Produce an export table in the exe-
                    cutable.  The optional file restricts the exported
                    symbols to those listed in the file.  See
                    dynld(10.2).

          -u        [ file ] Produce an export table, import table and
                    a dynamic load section in the executable.  The
                    optional file restricts the imported symbols to
                    those listed in the file.  See dynld(10.2).

          -Hn       Executable header is type n. The meaning of the
                    types is architecture-dependent; typically type 1
                    is Plan 9 boot format and type 2 is the regular
                    Plan 9 format, the default.  These are reversed on
                    the MIPS.  The Next boot format is 3.  Type 4 in
                    vl creates a MIPS executable for an SGI Unix sys-
                    tem.

          -Tt       The text segment starts at address t.

          -Dd       The data segment starts at address d.

          -Rr       The text segment is rounded to a multiple of r (if
                    r is nonzero).

          The numbers in the above options can begin with `0x' or `0'
          to change the default base from decimal to hexadecimal or
          octal.  The defaults for the values depend on the compiler
          and the header type.

          The loaded image has several symbols inserted by the loader:
          etext is the address of the end of the text segment; bdata
          is the address of the beginning of the data segment; edata
          is the address of the end of the data segment; and end is
          the address of the end of the bss segment, and of the pro-
          gram.

     FILES

     2L(10.1)                                                 2L(10.1)

          /$objtype/lib  for -llib arguments.

     SOURCE
          /utils/2l etc.

     SEE ALSO
          2c(10.1), 2a(10.1), iar(10.1), inm(10.1)

          Rob Pike, ``How to Use the Plan 9 C Compiler''