2C(10.1)                                                 2C(10.1)

     NAME
          0c, 1c, 2c, 5c, 6c, 7c, 8c, kc, qc, vc - C compilers

     SYNOPSIS
          2c [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
          etc.

     DESCRIPTION
          These commands compile the named C files into object files
          for the corresponding architecture.  Associated with each
          compiler is a string objtype, for example

          0c spim        Little-endian MIPS

          1c 68000       Motorola MC68000

          2c 68020       Motorola MC68020

          5c arm         ARM 7500

          6c amd64       AMD64 extension to x86

          7c alpha       Digital Alpha APX

          8c 386         Intel i386, i486, Pentium, etc.

          kc sparc       Sun SPARC

          qc power       Power PC,

          vc mips        big-endian MIPS 3000 family

          Let the first letter of the compiler name be O= 0, 1, 2, 5,
          6, 7, 8, k, q, or v.  The output object files end in .O.
          The letter is also the prefix of related programs: Oa is the
          assembler, Ol is the loader.

          Plan 9 conventionally sets the $objtype environment variable
          to the objtype string appropriate to the current machine's
          type.  Plan 9 also conventionally has /objtype directories,
          which contain among other things: include, for machine-
          dependent include files; lib, for public object code
          libraries; bin, for public programs; and mkfile, for precon-
          ditioning mk(10.1).

          For Inferno cross-compilation on all platforms, not just
          Plan 9, both $objtype and $OBJTYPE are set by every native
          kernel mkfile to correspond to the target processor type.
          The Inferno mkfiles also set the -I option appropriately to
          search the Inferno include directories, since the Plan 9

     2C(10.1)                                                 2C(10.1)

          defaults are inappropriate.

          The compiler options are:

          -o obj    Place output in file obj (allowed only if there is
                    just one input file).  Default is to take the last
                    element of the input file name, strip any trailing
                    .c, and append .O.

          -w        Print warning messages about unused variables,
                    etc.

          -B        Accept functions without a new-style ANSI C func-
                    tion prototype.  By default, the compilers reject
                    functions used without a defined prototype,
                    although ANSI C permits them.

          -Dname=def
          -Dname    Define the name to the preprocessor, as if by
                    `#define'.  If no definition is given, the name is
                    defined as `1'.

          -F        Warn when the elements of a format (eg, those used
                    by print) disagree with in type or size with the
                    corresponding parameter, or there is a mismatch in
                    number.  See the discussion of extensions, below.

          -Idir     An `#include' file whose name does not begin with
                    slash or is enclosed in double quotes is always
                    sought first in the directory of the file argu-
                    ment.  If this fails, the -. flag is given or the
                    name is enclosed in <>, it is then sought in
                    directories named in -I options, then in
                    /sys/include, and finally in /$objtype/include.

          -.        Suppress the automatic searching for include files
                    in the directory of the file argument.

          -N        Suppress automatic registerization and optimiza-
                    tion.

          -S        Print an assembly language version of the object
                    code on standard output as well as generating the
                    .O file.

          -T        Pass type signatures on all external and global
                    entities.  The signature is based on the C signof
                    operator, an extension in this compiler.  See
                    dynld(10.2).

          -V        By default, the compilers are non-standardly lax
                    about type equality between void* values and other

     2C(10.1)                                                 2C(10.1)

                    pointers; this flag requires ANSI C conformance.

          -a        Instead of compiling, print on standard output
                    acid functions (see acid(10.1)) for examining
                    structures declared in the source files.

          -aa       Like -a except suppress information about struc-
                    tures declared in included header files.

          The compilers handle most preprocessing directives them-
          selves, but support excludes the #if and #elif directives,
          and the ## preprocessor operation.

          The compilers support several extensions to ANSI C:

          -    A structure or union may contain unnamed substructures
               and subunions.  The fields of the substructures or sub-
               unions can then be used as if they were members of the
               parent structure or union (the resolution of a name
               conflict is unspecified).  When a pointer to the outer
               structure or union is used in a context that is only
               legal for the unnamed substructure, the compiler pro-
               motes the type and adjusts the pointer value to point
               at the substructure.  If the unnamed structure or union
               is of a type with a tag name specified by a typedef
               statement, the unnamed structure or union can be
               explicitly referenced by <struct variable>.<tagname>.

          -    A structure value can be formed with an expression such
               as
                   (struct S){v1, v2, v3}
               where the list elements are values for the fields of
               struct S.

          -    Array initializers can specify the indices of the array
               in square brackets, as
                   int a[] = { [3] 1, [10] 5 };
               which initializes the third and tenth elements of the
               eleven-element array a.

          -    Structure initializers can specify the structure ele-
               ment by using the name following a period, as
                   struct { int x; int y; } s = { .y 1, .x 5 };
               which initializes elements y and then x of the struc-
               ture s.  These forms also accept the new ANSI C nota-
               tion, which includes an equal sign:
                   int a[] = { [3] = 1, [10] = 5 };
                   struct { int x; int y; } s = { .y = 1, .x = 5 };

          -    A global variable can be dedicated to a register by
               declaring it extern register in all modules and
               libraries.

     2C(10.1)                                                 2C(10.1)

          -    A #pragma of the form
                   #pragma lib "libbio.a"
               records that the program needs to be loaded with file
               /$objtype/lib/libbio.a; such lines, typically placed in
               library header files, obviate the -l option of the
               loaders.  To help identify files in non-standard direc-
               tories, within the file names in the #pragmas the
               string $M represents the name of the architecture
               (e.g., mips) and $O represents its identifying charac-
               ter (e.g., v).

          -    Two #pragma requests to define rules for checking
               print-like formats (see the -F option above).  One
               #pragma tells for a given routine which argument is the
               format.  For example:
                   #pragma varargck argpos print 1
                   #pragma varargck argpos sprint 2
               say that print has a format as its first argument, and
               sprint has one as its second.  Another #pragma associ-
               ates format character sequences and types:
                  #pragma varargck type "lld" vlong
                  #pragma varargck type "lx" void*
                  #pragma varargck type "S" Rune*
               where the format characters are those following the %
               in the format (ignoring any preceding formatting
               flags).  Note the assumption that all formats arguments
               are compatible.  The system include files have appro-
               priate #pragma lines for the standard format elements
               and formatting functions.

          -    A #pragma of the form
                   #pragma incomplete type
               tells the compiler that type should have its signature
               calculated as an incomplete type even when it is fully
               defined.  This allows the type signature mechanism to
               work in the presence of opaque types declared in header
               files, with their full definitions visible only to the
               code which manipulates them.  With some imported soft-
               ware it might be necessary to turn off the signature
               generation completely for a large body of code (typi-
               cally at the start and end of a particular include
               file).  If type is the word _off_, signature generation
               is turned off; if type is the word _on_, the compiler
               will generate signatures.

          -    The C++ comment (// to end of line) is accepted as well
               as the normal convention of /* */.

          -    The compilers accept long long variables as a 64-bit
               type.  The standard header typedefs this to vlong.
               Arithmetic on vlong values is usually emulated by a
               run-time library.

     2C(10.1)                                                 2C(10.1)

     EXAMPLE
          For the 68020, produce a program prog from C files main.c
          and sub.c:

               2c -FVw main.c sub.c
               2l -o prog main.2 sub.2

     FILES
          /sys/include       host system area for machine-independent
                             #include directives.
          /$objtype/include  host system area for machine-dependent
                             #include directives.

     SOURCE
          /utils/cc        machine-independent part
          /utils/2c, etc.  machine-dependent part

     SEE ALSO
          2a(10.1), 2l(10.1), mk(10.1), inm(10.1), acid(10.1),

          Rob Pike, ``How to Use the Plan 9 C Compiler''

     BUGS
          The preprocessor only handles `#define', `#include',
          `#undef', `#ifdef', `#line', and `#ifndef'.