man(1) Manual page archive

     LS(1)                                                       LS(1)

          ls, lc - list files

          ls [ -lpmnqduntscrFT ] [ file... ]

          lc [ -lpmnqduntscrFT ] [ file... ]

          Ls lists the named files in an order and format determined
          by its options.  The options determining the output format

          -l        Produce output in long format. The information
                    given in each column is as follows:

                    1.   The permission mode of the file. This is for-
                         matted as 11 characters; the first is `d' if
                         the file is a directory, `a' if the file is
                         append-only, `A' if it is an authentication
                         file, or `-' otherwise.  The next character
                         is `l' if the file is exclusive-use, or `-'
                         otherwise.  The remaining characters are in
                         three groups of three, each representing one
                         permission bit. Each character is either `r'
                         (read permission), `w' (write permission),
                         `x' (execute permission) or `-' (no permis-
                         sion).  The three groups represent permis-
                         sions granted for that file to the file's
                         owner, members of the file's group and any-
                         body else respectively.

                    2.   The device type (this is the `#' device let-
                         ter for local devices or `M' for files
                         mounted over a Styx connection).

                    3.   The device instance number (this distin-
                         guishes between separately mounted instances
                         of the same device).

                    4.   The file's owner.

                    5.   The file's group.

                    7.   The size of the file in bytes.

                    8.   The date and time the file was last modified
                         (see also the -u and the -e options).

                    9.   The name of the file.

     LS(1)                                                       LS(1)

          -m        Print the name of the user who most recently modi-
                    fied the file.

          -q        Print the file's qid (see sys-stat(2)) at the
                    beginning of each line; the printed fields are in
                    the order path, version, and type.

          -u        Applicable only to the -l and -t options: causes
                    time-sorted listings to be listed by time of last
                    access, and the access time to be printed in
                    long-format listings instead of the modification

          -e        Applicable only to the -l and -u options: causes
                    the time to be displayed as seconds since the

          -p        Print each filename as a bare name, without the
                    name of the containing directory.

          The other options relate to the order in which the listed
          files are printed, and which files are selected. Usually,
          each file that is a directory has its contents printed. The
          -d option causes the directory itself to be listed.  In a
          union directory, it is possible for there to be two or more
          instances of a file with the same name.  The -c option
          causes only the first one occurring to be listed. The
          options relating to ordering are:

          -n        Do not sort the files at all.

          -t        Sort by modification time (most recent first) or
                    access time if the -u option is also specified.

          -s        Sort by size (smallest first).

          -r        Reverse the sort order.

          -F        Add the character / after all directory names and
                    the character * after all executable files.

          -T        Print the character t before each file if it has
                    the temporary flag set, and - otherwise.

          Lc is the same as ls, but sets the -p option and pipes the
          output through mc(1).



     LS(1)                                                       LS(1)

          readdir(2), mc(1)