FS(1)                                                       FS(1)

          fs - file-hierarchy traversal

          fs verb arg

          Fs evaluates an expression whose values represent the con-
          tents of a hierarchical filesystem.  There are six types of

          fs        The complete contents of a filesystem.

          entries   Information about the entries in a filesystem
                    without their content.

          gate      A condition that can be used with conditional
                    verbs.  A gate is open to entries satisfying par-
                    ticular criteria.

          selector  A comparator which compares two entries and
                    selects one, both or neither of them.

          string    A simple string literal, represented by itself, or
                    quoted according to the usual shell quoting rules.

          command   A shell command, represented by an ``@'' character
                    followed by a braced block containing the shell

          void      No value. An expression of this type cannot be
                    used as an argument to any verb.

          A value is represented either by a literal (a string or
          shell command), or by a braced block, {verb [arg...]}, whose
          value is the result of evaluating verb with the given argu-

          In the following description of the verbs provided, an entry
          such as:

          print entries -> void

          describes a verb print, which takes one argument of type
          entries, and the result of which is of type void.  If the
          type is not one of those described above, it should be taken
          to be of type string.

          With no arguments, fs prints a summary of the available
          verbs.  Verbs understood by fs include:

     FS(1)                                                       FS(1)

          and gate gate [gate...] -> gate
                    And is a gate that is open to an entry if all its
                    arguments are open.

          bundle fs -> void
                    Bundle converts fs to an archival format and
                    writes it to the standard output.

          compose [-d] op -> selector
                    Compose implements ``compositing''-style opera-
                    tors, useful when merging filesystems.  Op speci-
                    fies the operator, taking its name from the graph-
                    ical Porter-Duff equivalent: AinB, AinB, BinA,
                    AoutB, BoutA, A, AoverB, AatopB, AxorB, B, BoverA,
                    or BatopA.  For instance, AinB gives the intersec-
                    tion of A and B; AatopB gives A whereever both A
                    and B exist, and B otherwise.  When used as a
                    selector for merge, operators that exclude the
                    union of A and B are not very useful, as they will
                    exclude all common directories at the top level.
                    Given the -d option, compose will allow through
                    directories that would otherwise be excluded in
                    this way, making operators such as AxorB (all that
                    A does not hold in common with B) more useful,
                    although accurate only for regular files.

          depth n -> gate
                    Depth is a gate open only to entries which are
                    within n levels of the root of the filesystem.

          entries fs -> entries
                    Entries produces all the entries contained within

          eval expr -> any
                    Eval evaluates an fs expression and yields its

          filter [-d]gate fs -> fs
                    The result of filter is a filesystem from which
                    all entries that will not pass through gate, and
                    their descendents, have been removed.  If the -d
                    flag is given, only files are filtered - directo-
                    ries bypass the gate.

          ls [-um] entries -> void
                    Print each entry in the style of ls -l (see
                    ls(1)). If the -u flag is given, the file access
                    time rather than the file modification time will
                    be printed. If the -m flag is given, the name of
                    the user that last modified the file is printed

     FS(1)                                                       FS(1)

          exec [-pP] [-t command] [-n n] command entries -> void
                    Run its argument command for each entry in entries
                    . If the -n flag is specified, exec will try to
                    gather n entries together before invoking the com-
                    mand (default 1).  The environent variable $file
                    is set to the names of the entries that have been
                    gathered.  If the -p flag is given, environment
                    variables are set giving information about the
                    mode, owner, modification time and size of the
                    entry (they are named after the equivalent field
                    names in the Dir structure; see sys-stat(2)). This
                    option is only valid when n is 1.  The -P flag
                    causes all the other fields in the Dir structure
                    to be included too.  Note that the command is run
                    in the same shell context each time, so environ-
                    ment variable set on one execution can be
                    retrieved on the next. The -t flag can be used to
                    specify a command which will be executed just
                    before termination.

          match [-ar] pattern -> gate
                    Match is a gate that is open if the entry's file-
                    name matches the pattern. If the -a flag is given,
                    the whole path will be used for the match.  If -r
                    is specified, the pattern is evaluated as a regu-
                    lar expression, otherwise it is a shell-style pat-
                    tern in the style of filepat(2).

          merge [-1] [-c selector] fs fs [fs...] -> fs
                    Recursively merge the contents of its argument
                    filesystems.  Selector is consulted to see which
                    entries are chosen for the result; if not given,
                    entries are resolved in favour of the first
                    filesystem (equivalent to {compose AoverB}).  If
                    the -1 flag is given, merging takes place only in
                    the top-level directory.

          mode spec -> gate
                    Mode is a gate that lets through entries whose
                    file permissions satisfy spec, which is a string
                    in the style of chmod(1). If the op field is +,
                    the specified permissions must be present; if -,
                    they must be absent, and if =, they must be
                    exactly as given.  The directory and auth modes
                    are specified with the characters ``d'' and ``A''

          not gate -> gate
                    Not is a gate open to an entry if its argument is

          or gate gate [gate...] -> gate

     FS(1)                                                       FS(1)

                    Or is a gate open to an entry if any argument is

          path [-x] path... -> gate
                    Path is a gate open to an entry whose full path-
                    name is an ancestor or a descendent of any path.
                    If -x is specified, the gate is open to any path
                    except descendents of the paths given.

          pipe [-1pP] command fs -> void
                    Pipe is similar to exec, except that the contents
                    of all files in fs are piped through command.
                    Unless the -1 option is given, command is started
                    once for each file, with $file set to its name,
                    and other environment variables set according to
                    the -p or -P options, as for exec.  If the -1
                    option is specified, command is started once only
                    - all file data is piped through that.

          print entries -> void
                    Print the path name of each entry.

          proto [-r root] protofile -> fs
                    Evaluate protofile as a mkfs(8) proto file. If
                    root is specified, it will be used as the root of
                    the resulting fs.

          query command -> gate
                    Query is a gate that runs command to determine
                    whether it is open: an empty exit status from the
                    command yields an open gate.  The environment
                    variable $file is set for the command to the path
                    name of the entry that is being queried for.

          run command -> string
                    Run runs command and substitutes the value of the
                    environment variable $s after its invocation.  $s
                    must have exactly one element.

          select gate entries -> entries
                    Select only those entries within entries that will
                    pass through gate. Descendents of elided entries
                    are not affected.

          setroot [-c] path fs -> fs
                    Setroot sets the name of the root directory of fs.
                    If the -c flag is given, the elements in the root
                    directory will be made explicit in the hierarchy
                    (i.e. the name of the top directory will not con-
                    tain any / characters).

          size entries -> void

     FS(1)                                                       FS(1)

                    Print the sum of the size of all entries, in

          unbundle file -> fs
                    Unbundle reads an archive as produced by bundle
                    from file; its result is the contents of the
                    filesystem that was originally bundled.  If file
                    is ``-'', the standard input is read.

          walk path -> fs
                    Walk produces a filesystem that's the result of
                    traversing all the files and directories under-
                    neath path.

          write dir fs -> void
                    Write the contents of fs to the filesystem rooted
                    at dir . If dir is empty, fs will be written to
                    the root directory originally associated with fs.

          As a convenience, fs carries out some automatic type conver-
          sions (conversions are applied recursively, so for instance,
          an fs-valued expression at the top level will converted to
          void by applying {print {entries fs}}.

               The result is {walk string}.

               The result is {entries fs}.

               The result is {match string}.

               The result is {print entries}.

               The result is {run command}.

          Print the size of all files below the current directory:
               fs size .
          Show the names of all files in x that aren't in y:
               fs select {mode -d} {merge -c {compose -d AoutB} x y}
          Remove all files from /appl ending in .dis:
               fs exec @{rm $file} {select *.dis /appl}
          Recursively copy the current directory to /tmp/foo.
               fs bundle . | fs write /tmp/foo {unbundle -}
          A simpler method of the above:
               fs write /tmp/foo .
          Interactively remove all regular files from one level of the
          current directory:

     FS(1)                                                       FS(1)

               fs exec @{rm $file} {select {query
                    @{echo -n $file:; ~ `{read} y yes}}
                    {select {mode -d} {filter {depth 1} .}}}

          Create a new archive containing those files from below the
          current directory that were held in an old archive:
               fs bundle {merge -c {compose AinB} . {unbundle old.bundle}} > new.bundle